Activity 1- Project Risks

Problem Set #1

#1 Back to basics to start this course:

  1. Define project.
  2. What are the five project process areas – give a short explanation of each.
  3. What are the ten project knowledge areas – give a short explanation of each.
  4. Define Project Risk – list the major processes related to project risk – explain how risk remediation is a part of our every day lives.
  5. How would you define quality in a project?
  6. Why is risk a dynamic variable within a project?
  7. How can a risk be related to a desirable event?

Text

Title: Managing Project Risks

ISBN: 9781119489733

Authors: Peter J. Edwards, Paulo Vaz Serra, Michael Edwards

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

Publication Date: 2019-08-13

3 Page The Crime Scene Management

 

 3 pg doc

  • Explain why it is important to secure the crime scene and provide examples.
  • Identify possible ways that evidence might be contaminated.
  • Identify different methods that might be necessary to document evidence at a crime scene.
  • Identify different collection methods that might be used at a crime scene.
  • Explain chain of custody and why it is important.
  • Identify the repercussions of failure to protect evidence or establish chain of custody.
  • Explain how an investigator or forensic expert differentiates between what is or is not evidence.

The Crime Scene Management

In your 3 pg doc, address the following:

  • Evaluate the evolution of forensic science.
  • Identify examples of scientific methods that have been disproven.
  • Explain the peer review process.
  • Compare and contrast common perceptions to the realities of forensic science.
  • Explain the CSI effect.
  • Evaluate what impact the CSI effect has or does not have on the forensic field and the criminal justice system.
  • Evaluate the impact of junk science, real or perceived, on the forensic field and criminal justice.

Case Study 1- Strategy Applied In Project Management

  1. Read the Case ” A Day in the Life” at the end of  chapter 1 and response to the following questions:
    Rachel, the project manager of a large information systems project, arrives at her office early to get caught up with work before her co-workers and project team arrive. However, as she enters the office she meets Neil, one of her fellow project managers, who also wants to get an early start on the day. Neil has just completed a project overseas. They spend 10 minutes socializing and catching up on personal news.
    (Rest of case not shown due to length.)

    1. How effectively do you think Rachel spent her day?
    2. What does the case tell you about what it is like to be a project manager?

Text

Title: Project Management: The Managerial Process

ISBN: 9781260238860

Authors: Clifford F. Gray, Erik W. Larson

Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education

Publication Date: 2020-01-09

The Memphis Economy

1. The book talks about two types of agglomerative economics: localization and urbanization economics. For a restaurant in Overton Square, would that location be a benefit primarily because of localization or urbanization economics.

2. One of the reasons for agglomerative economies is reduced search cost. Please provide two examples of businesses or other institutions in Memphis that benefit from lower search costs as a result of being in the city.

3. How has FedEx contributed to localization economics in Memphis? Please provide two specific examples.

4. Please list and describe three ways that cities encourage innovation. For each of the reasons, please provide an example from Memphis or another city.

Week 1 For EBP

Healthcare organizations continually seek to optimize healthcare performance. For years, this approach was a three-pronged one known as the Triple Aim, with efforts focused on improved population health, enhanced patient experience, and lower healthcare costs.

More recently, this approach has evolved to a Quadruple Aim by including a focus on improving the work life of healthcare providers. Each of these measures are impacted by decisions made at the organizational level, and organizations have increasingly turned to EBP to inform and justify these decisions.

To Prepare:

· Read the articles by Sikka, Morath, & Leape (2015); Crabtree, Brennan, Davis, & Coyle (2016); and Kim et al. (2016) provided in the Resources.

· Reflect on how EBP might impact (or not impact) the Quadruple Aim in healthcare.

· Consider the impact that EBP may have on factors impacting these quadruple aim elements, such as preventable medical errors or healthcare delivery.

To Complete:

Write a brief analysis (no longer than 2 pages) of the connection between EBP and the Quadruple Aim.

Your analysis should address how EBP might (or might not) help reach the Quadruple Aim, including each of the four measures of:

· Patient experience

· Population health

· Costs

· Work life of healthcare providers

 

 

Here are the 3 resources you need. APa format

 

https://www.proquest.com/docview/1778837907?accountid=14872

 

 

https://eds.p.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=83b68fc6-6a5a-4dd5-bcda-025d0420d649%40redis&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPXNoaWImc2l0ZT1lZHMtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=114436496&db=rzh

 

 

 

https://eds.p.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=0&sid=4d43a22a-aaae-42fb-8542-b431b8eea244%40redis&bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPXNoaWImc2l0ZT1lZHMtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXR

Sample of a Reflection Paper

 

 

Principles Of Communication

Introduction

Communication is vital in any level of society including both casual and professional situations. Efficiency and success in any professional field require effective communication. It is for this reason that professionalism and communication must go hand in hand.

Professionalism

My understanding of the term ‘professionalism’ is the conduct that is expected of every professional or rather every skilled person in their given area of specialization. Such conduct entails such mannerisms as etiquette, strict code of ethics, a demeanor that exudes confidence, effective communication, among several others. For instance, as a student, a certain code of conduct is expected of me in such areas as class attendance and academic integrity, which entails my professionalism.

 

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Professional Communication

Communication is an integral part of professionalism. My understanding is that a certain type of communication is expected in a given workplace for smooth operations. This is referred to as professional communication. It entails a wide range of communication means such as oral, digital, visual or even written. It also entails certain characteristics such as clarity and accuracy. A great example is an internal memo that is circulated through the school from the dean to the students informing them of an upcoming event. Reports are also important and are submitted after research is conducted in a certain field, and they could either be oral or written reports. Another important type of professional communication is letter writing which requires good diction and high clarity.

            Learning about communication has been a very eye-opening and informative experience. Although I communicate on a daily basis, there are many aspects of communication that I was not very well versed with. Such include significant listening skills, careers in communication, and professional communication. I would single out these as the most useful in my case, although it is important to state that generally, all the aspects I learned were equally important to me. I have come to the realization that I do not always accord my friends the best listening skills. There are many times when I interrupt them mid-speech and on other occasions listen to them absent-mindedly. I was also intrigued by the career paths that communication can lead one towards. One that particularly intrigued me was becoming a public relations specialist. Finally, I believe that the skills and knowledge gained from professional communication will guide me smoothly throughout my career ensuring my success.

            There is no doubt that I have gained a great deal of personal growth from this class. I recall learning at the beginning of the class that communication stretches through all fields of life and that it is the most essential aspect for the wellbeing and thriving of society. All the knowledge I have gained is a confirmation of this fact and it has culminated in me being a better person. Personally, the areas that I felt the most personal growth, was in listening skills. Giving people an ear and putting effort to understand the point that they are putting across is very important. I believe this will go a long way in improving my relations with other people.

            Among the skills that I have acquired in this class include how to express myself clearly through both verbal and non-verbal means, listening skills, professional communication, as well as choosing appropriate means of communication in different settings. Therefore, I can now accurately incorporate gestures and facial expressions while having casual conversations with my friends and fellow students. Understanding what I am being told is also much easier now due to the essential listening skills I gained. In professional contexts, I can communicate effectively whether it is in letters, memos, emails, or even reports.

 

Conclusion

It is clear that life would be much better with better communication. All the chaos that arises from simple misunderstandings would be a thing of the past. We would also attain greater world peace. I now have the necessary communication skills and knowledge that will continually make my life better b­­­­­­­oth at a personal and professional level.

 

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Quality and Cost

 

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Quality assessment is being adapted as a method for buyers, patients, and providers to evaluate health care expenditure. To this end, necessary advancements have been made towards the science of quality assessment over the past years. However, several challenges continue to be addressed so that quality assessment can achieve its ability as a counterforce to the demands of cost containment. Some of the challenges encountered during quality assessment include; Identifying and balancing the competing perspectives of main participant in the health care system, developing an accountability framework, establishing the best criteria by which the performance of the healthcare will be judged, selecting routine reporting indicators, conflicts between financial and non-financial incentives and quality care objectives, and developing information systems needed for quality monitoring.

Several methods have been used to measure health care quality. These include; assessing the appropriateness of an intervention which indicates the effectiveness of the intervention, examining the level at which care given parallels health guidelines and standards, practice profiling which compares patterns of cost, utilization and quality processes among providers in accordance with pre-established standards, and Process assessment in which interpersonal health care quality can be evaluated by consumer ratings which consists of both received care and its satisfaction (MClellan,2013).

Baldrige Excellence Framework for Health Care helps organizations in assessing their management performance. This framework acknowledges goals such as customer satisfaction and employees involvement. Through customer satisfaction quality can be achieved without increasing cost. This is possible in the following ways; reducing quality issues that arise due to consumer dissatisfaction, reducing cost without compromising service quality and rising customer expectations by providing services they view as of high value (Nolan & Bisognano 2006

 

References

MClellan, M. B. (2013). Improving Health Care Quality: The Path Forward. Center for Health Policy (ed.). Brookings Institution: http://www. brookings. Edu/research/testimony/2013/06/26-improving-health-care-quality-mcclellan: Congressional Testimony

Nolan, T., & Bisognano, M. (2006). Finding the balance between quality and cost: what’s the answer to improving the value of health care? One group believes hospitals could take a lesson from Japanese quality expert Noriaki Kano. Healthcare Financial Management60(4), 66-73.

 

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liberalism

Classical liberals sought for economic liberty (66). This led to opposing of mercantilism and monopoly which only benefited an advantaged few (67). This paved way for capitalism in the eighteenth century. This view was greatly promoted by Adam Smith (1723-1790), who argued that individuals should be left to compete freely in the market.

 

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In the nineteenth century, the British Empire was experiencing immense benefits from the industrial revolution and acquiring of colonies in India, Canada, Australia, and later on Africa (69). The result was immense industrialization that benefited the middle class while leaving the working class exploited through poor working conditions such as long working hours and poor pay (70). A group of liberals, known as utilitarians, noticed this plight and sought to rectify it. Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832), regarded as their leader, established that people should seek utility since utility promotes happiness (71). As such, he urged every individual to take the action that promotes the happiness of the greatest number of people (71). This is also referred to as the principle of utility. Bentham also entertained the idea that the government should intervene to promote the happiness of the majority. However, for such to be practical, such a government would need to be elected by the majority (72).

            John Stuart Mill (1806-1873), also a utilitarian, aimed at extending individual liberties. He achieved this through advocating for women rights. Mill was also concerned about the minority who did not conform to social standards. To improve the liberties of such groups, Mill formulated the Harm principle which stated that the only reason the government or society should interfere with a person’s activities is only when such actions are harming or threatening to harm others.

Neoclassical liberalism

Welfare liberalism

 

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A good wife

A good wife should be the mistress of her home, having under her care all that is within it, according to the rules we have laid down. She should allow none to enter without her husband’s knowledge, dreading above all things the gossip of gadding women, which tends to poison the soul. She alone should have knowledge of what happens within. She must exercise control of the money spent on such festivities as her husband has approved—keeping, moreover, within the limit set by law upon expenditure, dress, and ornament—and remembering that beauty depends not on costliness of raiment. Nor does abundance of gold so conduce to the praise of a woman as self-control in all that she does. This, then, is the province over which a woman should be minded to bear an orderly rule; for it seems not fitting that a man should know all that passes within the house. But in all other matters, let it be her aim to obey her husband; giving no heed to public affairs, nor having any part in arranging the marriages of her children. Rather, when the time shall come to give or receive in marriage sons or daughters, let her then hearken to her husband in all respects, and agreeing with him obey his wishes. It is fitting that a woman of a well-ordered life should consider that her husband’s wishes are as laws appointed for her by divine will, along with the marriage state and the fortune she shares. If she endures them with patience and gentleness, she will rule her home with ease; otherwise, not so easily. Therefore not only when her husband is in prosperity and good report must she be in agreement with him, and to render him the service he wills, but also in times of adversity. If, through sickness or fault of judgement, his good fortune fails, then must she show her quality, encouraging him ever with words of cheer and yielding him obedience in all fitting ways—only let her do nothing base or unworthy.

 

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Let her refrain from all complaint, nor charge him with the wrong, but rather attribute everything of this kind to sickness or ignorance or accidental errors. Therefore, she will serve him more assiduously than if she had been a slave bought and taken home. For he has indeed bought her with a great price–with partnership in his life and in the procreation of children….Let her bethink herself how Alcestis would never have attained such renown nor Penelope have deserved all the high praises bestowed on her had not their husbands known adversity. To find partners in prosperity is easy enough; but only the best women are ready to share in adversity.Such then is the pattern of the rules and ways of living which a good wife will observe. And the rules which a good husband will follow in treatment of his wife will be similar; seeing that she has entered his home like a suppliant from without, and is pledged to be the partner of his life and parenthood; and that the offspring she leaves behind her will bear the names of their parents, her name as well as his. And what could be more divine than this, or more desired by a man of sound mind, than to beget by a noble and honored wife children who shall be the most loyal supporters and discreet guardians of their parents in old age, and the preservers of the whole house? Rightly reared by father and mother, children will grow up virtuous, as those who have treated them piously and righteously deserve that they should; but parents who observe not these precepts will be losers thereby. For unless parents have given their children an example how to live, the children in their turn will be able to offer a fair and specious excuse for undutifulness. Such parents will risk being rejected by their offspring for their evil lives, and thus bring destruction upon their own heads. Therefore his wife’s training should be the object of a man’s unstinting care; that so far as is possible their children may spring from the noblest of stock. For it is only by this means that each mortal, successively produced, participates in immortality; and that petitions and prayers continue to be offered to ancestral gods. So that he who thinks lightly of this would seem also to be slighting the gods. For their sake then, in whose presence he offered sacrifice and led his wife home, promising to honor her far above all others saving his parents, a man must have care for wife and children. Now a virtuous wife is best honored when she sees that her husband is faithful to her, and has no preference for another woman; but before all others loves and trusts her and holds her as his own. And so much the more will the woman seek to be what he accounts her. If she perceives that her husband’s affection for her is faithful and righteous, she too will be faithful and righteous towards him. Therefore it befits not a man of sound mind to bestow his person promiscuously, or have random intercourse with women; for otherwise the base-born will share in the rights of his lawful children, and his wife will be robbed of her honor due, and shame be attached to his sons.And it is fitting that he should approach his wife in honor, full of self-restraint and awe; and in his conversation with her, should use only the words of a right-minded man, suggesting only such acts as are themselves lawful and honorable. And if through ignorance she has done wrong, he should advise her of it in a courteous and modest manner. For of fear there are two kinds. The fear which virtuous and honorable sons feel towards their fathers, and loyal citizens towards right-minded rulers, has for its companions reverence and modesty; but the other kind, felt by slaves for masters and by subjects for despots who treat them with injustice and wrong, is associated with hostility and hatred. By choosing the better of all these alternatives a husband should secure the agreement, loyalty, and devotion of his wife, so that whether he himself is present or not, there may be no difference in her attitude towards him, since she realizes that they are alike guardians of the common interests; and so when he is away she may feel that to her no man is kinder or more virtuous or more truly hers than her own husband. And if the husband learns first to master himself, he will thereby become his wife’s best guide in all the affairs of life, and will teach her to follow his example.

 

 

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Classical and Contemporary Liberal Views

 

Introduction

All liberals desire to promote the liberties of all individuals. This is the common goal that united all the liberals since the establishment of capitalism in the 18th century. However, during the industrial revolution, several issues came to light leaving the liberals divided. It became apparent that a free society without enough intervention by the government led to the oppression of some groups while others benefited. This division gave rise to a new liberal view that cared about the welfare of each member of society. Others remained with the earlier liberal views referred to as the classical liberal view. There are key differences between classical and contemporary liberal views.

Key Differences Between the Classic and Contemporary Liberal Views of the Resources Government Must Provide to Insure the Basic Freedom of Citizens

Differences between the classical and contemporary liberal views partly stem from the definition of the term freedom. Classical liberalists in the 18th and 19th centuries viewed freedom as the lack of restraint. In the wake of the industrial revolution that saw a surge in industrialization, classical liberals demanded economic freedom (Ball et al. 67). This meant that they expected the nobles to abolish restraints against trade by the middle class. A free-market driven by capitalism would benefit the common citizen as well as society. Contemporary liberals, on the other hand, view freedom as both the lack of restraint and the empowerment of individuals (Ball et al. 76). In both cases, the liberals agree that the government has a role to play to ensure these freedoms. However, classical liberals believe that the government has a lesser role to play as compared to contemporary liberals. A group of liberals referred to as neo-classical maintained that the role of government in supporting individual rights should be reduced to a night watchman (Ball et al. 75). Thus classical liberals define freedom differently from contemporary liberals.

 

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Classical Liberals

Classical Liberals believe that the government should provide resources that promote economic freedom as a means of ensuring basic individual freedoms. These include infrastructure, lack of economic restrictions, free trade between countries, defense from foreign invasion, and promotion of justice and order through property rights. Infrastructure such as roads, harbors, railway, and waterways are meant to boost trade through easy transport of raw materials and finished goods. Classical liberals also demand that the government should reduce restrictions against free trade. In previous centuries such as the 17th and 18th centuries, only a few privileged benefited from economic growth. This led to classical liberals coming up with capitalism (Ball et al. 67). Thus, in this case, the government is expected to facilitate free competition. National security also promotes freedom by ensuring a safe environment for trading activities. Finally, classical liberals expect the government to provide a justice system that protects people’s property and maintains order (Ball et al. 69). In a classical liberal’s view, these resources are sufficient to guarantee that the citizens’ rights are safeguarded.

Contemporary liberals

Contemporary liberals expect the government to provide resources that empower individuals as a means of promoting their basic freedoms. Such resources include public schools, hospitals, aid to the needy and disadvantaged, regulations regarding working conditions, and affirmative action programs. Furthermore, resources should be allocated to helping the disadvantaged enjoy equal opportunity and regulating economic competition. When it comes to public schools, education is indeed a tool that empowers the people (Ball et al. 77). A contemporary liberal does not believe an uneducated person to be truly free as opposed to a classical liberal. Another related issue is health. An ailing person cannot claim to be truly free and empowered. As such, the government is expected to establish hospitals effective in treating various maladies. This class of liberals also believes that the rights of the needy and disadvantaged cannot be ignored. Such groups should be covered by various effective programs. Working conditions should be regulated by the law to ensure that the workers are not exploited. Unlike the classical liberals’ view  that the government should not interfere in free competition, contemporary liberals argue that the government should regulate economic competition to ensure fair trade. Finally, affirmative programs allow the empowerment of previously discriminated groups (Ball et al. 84). These resources ensure that the basic rights of individuals are not infringed upon.

Political Liberty

The understanding of human nature and society is different for contemporary and classical liberals. This can be deduced from their respective definition of human rights. Classical liberals view people as being driven by self-interests and passion. This is the mindset that drove Adam Smith (1723-1790) to promote the view of capitalism (Ball et al. 67). Together with other capitalists, Smith argued that if people are left to trade privately, they are capable of improving their wellbeing. Later on, it emerged that such rights only favored the middle class while the working class was exploited. Classical liberals believed that this was simply natural selection as proposed by Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution. Those who followed this line of thought believed that human beings were meant to freely compete with each other. In such a scenario, only the strongest would emerge as successful. Thus, classical liberals such as Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) believed that the government should not interfere in the free market (Ball et al. 75). In contrast, contemporary liberals view human beings as social beings who rely on each other. As such, they work to promote the welfare of all citizens including the minority and disadvantaged. These differing views of human nature are portrayed in the definition of basic human rights.

 

Classical liberals understand political liberty differently from contemporary liberals. Indeed, both schools of thought believe in political liberties as characterized by great political movements such as the French revolution (Ball et al. 63). However, their views on human nature factored in their views towards political liberty. Classical liberals aim to reduce the powers of the government. This means that the people are left to live their lives freely with the common view that they will choose the best actions for themselves. As such matters such as democracy do not play a huge role in such a society. In contrast, contemporary liberals seek to increase the powers of the government. This philosophy was ushered in by the utilitarians who argued that a government is necessary to enable the creation of utility for the majority as per the principle of utility (Ball et al. 71). Therefore, contemporary liberals believe that the government should have much power to improve the welfare of every citizen. To realize this goal, people must participate in the government, hence a democracy. Political liberty hence plays a bigger role in contemporary than classical liberals.

Response to Affirmative Action

The issue of affirmative action would be opposed by a classical liberal. This is because such liberals do not believe in any interference on people’s rights except to safeguard such rights. Affirmative action favors certain minority groups who have been discriminated against. This is not acceptable to a classical liberal. This issue was at the center of discussion during the 19th century. Darwin’s ‘Origin of Species’ (1859), fueled this conversation by claiming that nature dictates the survival of the fittest and natural selection (Ball et al. 75). This means that people should be left to struggle among themselves, each driven by their self-interests. If any individuals should be disadvantaged, then that is just nature’s way. Hence, classical liberals believe in equal opportunities whether at schools or work.

Contemporary liberals advocate for affirmative action. The welfare of the majority is at the heart of such freedom. In society, cases arise whereby a certain group is discriminated against. Such groups include women in general, whose rights have been violated. Another common example is the discrimination faced by the black population in the US in the past and even up to date. To compensate for such past injustices that may have left such groups lagging, contemporary liberals maintain that they should be allowed preference in hiring and slots in institutions of learning (Ball et al. 84). Other groups include the special needs people such as handicapped. As it is expected, such groups are disadvantaged and are not in a position to compete fairly with other citizens. To correct this, a contemporary liberal would support affirmative action.

Conclusion

The aim of all liberals, both classical and contemporary is to promote individual freedoms. However, the means of achieving this aim differs for the different groups. This is because the two views define freedoms differently.

 

Work Cited

Ball, Terence, Richard Dagger, and Daniel I. O’Neill. Political ideologies and the democratic ideal. Taylor & Francis, 2016.

 

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