2.focus on how haze comes.

3.3 pages

4. Title:Research article: Trends of PM2.5 concentrations in China: A long term approachAuthors:Fontes, Tânia a, b, c, ∗
Li, Peilin a
Barros, Nelson b
Zhao, Pengjun aAffiliation:a Centre for Urban Planning and Transport Studies, Peking University, Beijing, China
b CIAGEB – Global Change, Energy, Environment and Bioengineering Center, University Fernando Pessoa, Porto, Portugal
c INESC TEC – INESC Technology and Science and FEUP- Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Porto, PortugalSource:In Journal of Environmental Management 1 July 2017 196:719-732Publisher:Elsevier LtdAbstract:The fast economic growth of China along the last two decades has created a strong impact on the environment. The occurrence of heavy haze pollution days is the most visible effect. Although many researchers have studied such problem, a high number of spatio-temporal limitations in the recent studies were identified. From our best knowledge the long trends of PM2.5 concentrations were not fully investigated in China, in particular the year-to-year trends and the seasonal and daily cycles. Therefore, in this work the PM2.5 concentrations collected from automatic monitors from five urban sites located in megacities with different climatic zones in China were analysed: Beijing (40°N), Chengdu (31°N), Guangzhou (23°N), Shanghai (31°N) and Shenyang (43°N). For an inter-comparison a meta-analysis was carried out. An evaluation conducted since 1999 demonstrates that PM2.5 concentrations have been reduced until 2008, period which match with the occurrence of the Olympic Games. However, a seasonal analysis highlight that such decrease occurs mostly during warmer seasons than cold seasons. During winter PM2.5 concentrations are typically 1.3 to 2.7 higher than in summer. The average daily cycle shows that the lowest and highest PM2.5 concentrations often occurs in the afternoon and evening hours respectively. Such daily variations are mostly driven by the daily variation of the boundary layer depth and emissions. Although the PM2.5 levels have showing signs of improvement, even during the warming season the values are still too high in comparison with the annual environmental standards of China (35 μg m−3). Moreover, during cold seasons the north regions have values twice higher than this limit. Thus, to fulfil these standards the governmental mitigation measures need to be strongly reinforced in order to optimize the daily living energy consumption, primarily in the north regions of China and during the winter periods. •Long trends of PM2.5 concentrations were investigated in 5 Chinese megacities.•PM2.5 have decreased mostly during warmer seasons.•Highest PM2.5 are usually observed during evening hours and winter seasons.•PM2.5 decreased but values are still too high in comparison with Chinese standards.•New measures are needed namely during winter and in the north Chinese regions.Document Type:ArticleISSN:0301-4797DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2017.03.074Accession Number:S030147971730289XCopyright:© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Persistent link to this record (Permalink):http://0-search.ebscohost.com.ignacio.usfca.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edselp&AN=S030147971730289X&site=eds-live&scope=site Cut and Paste:<a href="”http://0-search.ebscohost.com.ignacio.usfca.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edselp&AN=S030147971730289X&site=eds-live&scope=site“>Research article: Trends of PM2.5 concentrations in China: A long term approach Database:ScienceDirect

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Title:The environmental consequences of domestic and foreign investment: Evidence from ChinaAuthors:Liu, Yiming a, f
Hao, Yu a, b, c, d, e, ⁎, 1
Gao, Yixuan a, gAffiliation:a Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
b School of Management and Economics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China
c Sustainable Development Research Institute for Economy and Society of Beijing, Beijing 100081, China
d Collaborative Innovation Center of Electric Vehicles in Beijing, Beijing 100081, China
e Beijing Key Lab of Energy Economics and Environmental Management, Beijing 100081, China
f Department of Building, School of Design and Environment, National University of Singapore, 4 Architecture Drive, Singapore S117566, Singapore
g Department of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of New Hampshire, 56 College Road, Durham, NH 03824, USASource:In Energy Policy September 2017 108:271-280Publisher:Elsevier LtdTopics:ENENAbstract:Fixed asset investment (FAI) and foreign indirect investment (FDI) have important influences on economic development and environmental quality. Because environmental performance is related with economic development, FAI and FDI may affect environment indirectly through their impacts on economic growth. In this study, the direct and indirect effects of both FAI and FDI on China’s environmental quality are distinguished and separately estimated for the first time with a carefully designed framework of a two-equation model. Because most economic activities and environmental pollutions occur in the urban areas, a panel data of 112 Chinese cities for the period 2002–2015 is utilized. Several spatial factors are also introduced to control for the potential spatial correlations in economic development and pollutant emissions. The estimation results indicate that there exist apparent differences in the environmental effects of FAI and FDI. The direct effects of FAI on SO2 emissions are significant positive and dominate the negative indirect effects. By contrast, the direct, indirect and total effects of FDI on pollutant emissions are all negative. Therefore, overall speaking, well designed and targeted policies should be formulated to reduce the negative environmental impacts of FAI and to increase the positive influences of FDI on environment. •Influences of domestic and foreign investment on environmental quality in China are investigated.•City-level panel data of fixed asset investment (FAI) and foreign direct investment (FDI) are used.•Spatial correlations in economic development and pollutant emissions are controlled for.•The positive direct effects of FAI on SO2 emissions dominate the negative indirect effects.•The direct, indirect and total effects of FDI on both pollutant emissions are all negative.Document Type:ArticleISSN:0301-4215DOI:10.1016/j.enpol.2017.05.055Accession Number:S0301421517303464Copyright:© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Persistent link to this record (Permalink):http://0-search.ebscohost.com.ignacio.usfca.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edselp&AN=S0301421517303464&site=eds-live&scope=site Cut and Paste:<a href="”http://0-search.ebscohost.com.ignacio.usfca.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edselp&AN=S0301421517303464&site=eds-live&scope=site“>The environmental consequences of domestic and foreign investment: Evidence from China Database:ScienceDirect

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