1. Kemal Ataturk carried out policies that distanced the new Turkish republic of the 1920s from the Ottoman past. Why? What specific policies did Ataturk pursue? 2. Why many Arabs felt betrayed by the British (and the French) after the First World War? 3. Discuss at least three features of patrimonial leadership. List three or more Middle Eastern states where such type of political leadership persists 4. Describe the key processes (both internal and external) that initiated political and economic disintegration of the Ottoman Empire in the nineteenth century. 5. European military superiority in the late eighteenth century prompted Ottoman rulers to respond with what specific political measures? 6. The Zionist political movement originated in Europe rather than in the Middle East. Explain why and how. 7. After the Second World War, several Arab countries went through the process of transition from constitutional monarchies to republics. Identify three such countries and describe the course of events that brought about this transition. 8. How is religious Zionism different from secular Zionism? What is the relevance of this difference for the creation of the state of Israel? Has the relative influence of the two remained stable since the creation of the Israeli state? 9. What was the principle source of political legitimacy of the Ottoman Empire? 10. While most Ottoman European provinces, riding the tide of the nineteenth century nationalism, sought and won independence from Istanbul, Ottoman Arab provinces maintained their political loyalty to the Ottomans. What explains this difference between Arab and European provinces? 11. Social and political forces in favor of a constitutional reform in Iran (1905-1911) were markedly different from the groups that promoted constitutional limitations on executive powers of the sultan in the Ottoman Empire prior to the First World War? Explain this difference. 12. What are some of the key features of Arab socialisms? Which Arab leaders adopted socialist ideology? Which Arab leaders were opposed to it? 13. After the First World War, the new Middle Eastern protectorates (e.g., Syria, Lebanon, Iraq) were expected to develop into modern secular states. What specific policies did France and Britain try to implement? How successful have theses policies been? 14. The 1967 war was a watershed event for all major actors in the Middle East. Explain the consequences of the war for domestic politics in Israel and Egypt respectively.
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