Phases of matter

Question;

  1. Discuss the phases of matter 

Generally, there are four main phases of matter, these include;

1. Gases

2. Liquid

3. Solid

4. Plasma.

There are  other phases of matter which exist ib extreme conditions, these include;

1.Bose–Einstein condensates

2.neutron-degenerate matter 

3. quark-gluon plasma.

These phases of matter can transform from from one state to another when subjected to heat or cold.

1.Solids

Their particles are packed tightly to each other. 

Their particles have very low kinetic energy.

Solids have definite shape.

Solids also have definite volume.

Expand  on heating and contract on cooling.

Note 

most of the solids can melt on heating to become liquid and can also change directly to gas through Sublimation.

Examples of solids

Soil

Sand flour

All types of seeds

Stones 

And many more

2.Liquids

The particles have more kinetic energy than those of solid.

The particles are not much held together like in solids.

They have no definite shape hence taking the shape of the container.

They have definite volume.

The particles are held by weak intermolecular forces.

Liquids expands on heating and contract on cooling.

Note 

Most liquids transform to solid on cooling through freezing and evaporate to gas on heating through vaporization.

Examples of liquids

Water

Wine

Alcohol

Milk

Kerosene

Petrol 

And many more

3. Gases

They have high kinetic energy due to spaces between them.

They have no definite volume or shape because they have enough energy to overcome intermolecular forces.

Liquids readily flow.

Note

Gases can transform to liquid on cooling through condensation and to solid through sublimation.

Examples of gases

Oxygen 

Nitrogen

Carbon iv oxide

Rare gases( helium, argon, krypton and neon).

4. Plasma

It is not a common state of matter on earth but in the universe.

Has high kinetic energy.

Noble gases such as helium and argon are ionized into plasma state so that they can glow.

  • Welding arcs.

  • Lightning.

  • Auroras.

  • Stars and the Sun.

  • the solar wind.

  • interstellar gas clouds.

And many more

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