Plant Organelle

 

Name of Organelle Found in Plant,

Animal, or Both

Function
Cell Wall Plant It offers Protection to the cell. It also provides support for the cell and  also allows the passage of materials into and out of the cell membrane

 

Cell Membrane Both It controls the substances that get into and out of the cell due to its selectively permeable nature. It also separates the cell from the external environment hence offering protection

 

Cytoplasm Both Provides a fluid environment where the cell organelles can float within
Mitochondrion Both It converts molecules of food into energy that can be used by the cell carry out its functions

 

Nucleus Both The nucleus is the control center of the cell. All the cell activities are directed from here such as metabolism. Furthermore, it also contains chromosomes which carry the genetic information.

 

Nucleolus Both Its main function is the production of ribosomes

 

Nuclear Membrane Both Provides protection to the nucleus and also allows materials to move in and out of the nucleus.

 

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Both Offers transportation within the cells and also synthesizes steroids and lipids.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Both Offers transportation of mainly proteins to other cell organelles and also synthesize proteins

 

Chloroplast Plants It is essential for photosynthesis, the process by which the sunlight energy is converted into food energy

 

Centrosome Animals They facilitate the organization of micro tubules within the cell which is significant in the process of cell division.

 

Golgi Body Both Temporarily stores proteins before releasing them to the rest of the cell organelles as well as outside the cell

 

Vacuole Both These are organelles that store materials such as sugar and water and at times, waste products.

 

Ribosome Both Produces proteins
Central Vacuole Plant Stores materials required by the cell such as food

 

Cilia Animal allow movement of substances over the cells and also receive sensory information for the cell

 

Flagellum Animal Also allows the movement of substances over the cells.

 

Lysosome Both Contains chemicals that facilitate the breaking down of materials within the cell such as old and worn out cell organelles.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2)
1)
Cell membrane receptor proteins
 Globular Proteins

Phospholipid Layer

For 1) and 2) in the picture above indicate whether they are hydrophobic or hydrophilic below.

1) Hydrophobic

2) Hydrophilic

 

DIFFUSION

 

Blood Vessel Gases

7% Carbon dioxide

6% Oxygen

 

 

 

 

 

—–– – – >  

Blood Vessel

Lung

 

 

Diffusion of a Solid in a Liquid

 

100% hot water
100%  sugar

 

 

Water Temperature Start Time Stop Time Total Time to Diffuse
Ice Water      
Room Temperature Water      
Hot Plate Water      

???Which temperature of water seemed to facilitate diffusion the best? _________Hot Plate Water_____________

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OSMOSIS

Selectively permeable membrane

Osmosis is a specific type of diffusion.  It is the movement of a solvent through a differentially permeable (semipermeable) membrane.  Biologically, we are concerned with solutions dissolved in water.  When water is mixed with other molecules, this mixture is called a solution.  Water is the solvent and the dissolved substance is the solute.  In osmosis, we are not interested in what the solute is but only in the solvent (water) that can move across the membrane.  Discuss with your instructor the direction of water movement in the figure below.

 

 

 

10% Sodium Ions

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. What is the percentage of solute in the left side of the container above? _____50%___________
  2. What is the percentage of solvent in the left side of the container? _____50%_____________
  3. What is the percentage of solute in the right side of the container on page 3? ___10%___________
  4. What is the percentage of solvent in the right side of the container on page 3? ______90%________
  5. Where is the water in higher concentration – the left or right side? ________Right________
  6. Draw an arrow to indicate the direction of water movement on the drawing on page 3.

 

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Effect of Temperature on Osmosis

Temperature Initial Weight 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes
40C          
Room Temp          
Ice Water          

USING LINE GRAPHS, Graph the effect of temperature on the RATE of osmosis (time vs. mass).  Be sure to give your graph a title, label both the X and Y axis, and include a legend.  Use 3 different colored pencils. Which temperature has the fastest rate of diffusion? _________40 C____________________________

Effect of Concentration on Osmosis

Repeat the construction of the differentially permeable bags as above working in 2 groups.  Construct 3 bags consisting of different concentrations of a molasses mixture according to the following specifications:

Bag 1:  25% molasses             Bag 2: 50% molasses              Bag 3: 75% molasses

Rinse and gently pat dry to measure and record the initial weigh of each bag.  To begin the experiment, place each of them in a container of tap water that is at room temperature.  Check their weight and fullness at 5-minute intervals for a period of 20 minutes.  Record all data below and graph your results (time vs. mass).

Concentration Initial Weight 5 minutes 10 minutes 15 minutes 20 minutes
25%          
50%          
75%          

Which concentration has the fastest rate of diffusion? ___________75%______________

 

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