What are the major types of faults and under which type of stress is each most likely to occur?

There are three or four primary fault types:

  • Normal Fault – Occurs when the “hanging wall” moves down relative to the “foot wall” . These faults typically occur due to extensional stress.
  • Reverse or Thrust Fault – Occurs where the hanging wall moves up or is thrust over the foot wall. These faults are formed due to compressional forces. The difference between a reverse and thrust fault is the dip of the fault plane. Thrust faults are more shallowly dipping.
  • Strike Slip Fault – Near vertical fault where one side moves laterally relative to the other side. These faults occur due to shear stresses,

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