# 1. Which of the following have the greatest frequency of occurrence: lunar eclipse or solar eclipse?

1.      Which of the following have the greatest frequency of occurrence: lunar eclipse or solar eclipse?

2.      True or False: An observer on Earth can see the entire surface of the moon over 365 day period. Support your answer with reasoning from the textbook and Mastering Astronomy.

3.      Explain an eclipse of the moon and sun occur.

4.      Why were the following individuals important to astronomy? Ptolemy, Brahe, Kepler, Newton, Copernicus, Eratosthenes.

5.      Why do the ancient Greeks get a lot of attention for their contributions to science?

6.      What were the major observations made by Galileo that were used to advance astronomy of the time?

7.      Can you apply an understanding of Kepler’s Laws to astronomical principles stated in your textbook and illustrated in the Mastering Astronomy assignments?

8.      Astronomy vs Astrology: During a casual conversation a friend asks you how your Astrology 101 course is going: Do you know why you should clarify their statement? Explain a common misconception of Astrology in modern society.

9.      What is the difference between speed and velocity?

10.   When a net force is acting on an object – it will always cause an objects _____________ to change.

11.   Consider that a soccer ball is kicked up to a height of 10 meters. Use what you have learned from Mastering Astronomy tutorials and your textbook to explain how the gravitational potential energy of the ball is affected during its flight.

12.   Explain how tides occur on Earth.

13.   What is acceleration? Describe a situation where acceleration is present and a situation where acceleration is absent. This should be supported by the information in your textbook and Mastering Astronomy tutorials.

14.   What is the difference between energy and power?

15.   Discuss how visible light from stars is studied and why studying visible light from stars is important to astronomers: What information can be gained?

16.   Sometimes light is referred to as being made up of individual “pieces,” each characterized by a particular amount of energy. What are the pieces are called?

17.   From shortest to longest wavelength, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

18.   The spectra (spectral lines) of most galaxies show shift toward what color? Explain what this means.

19.   Regarding telescopes what is the following: focal plane, focus, chromatic aberration, refraction, reflection, focal length, resolution, light gathering power, and magnification?

20.   Discuss the two principle advantages of using visible light telescopes on Earth.

21.   Describe the difference between a refracting telescope and a reflecting telescope.

22.   What do astronomers mean when they use the following terms: light pollution, seeing, scintillation, adaptive optics, and active optics?

23.   Regarding observational astronomy: What does atmospheric turbulence cause?

24.   Which direction does the Earth rotate when you view the solar system from high above Earth’s North Pole? What simple observation supports this?

25.   What are the terrestrial planets – also, what are three general characteristics of these planets?

26.   What are the following: Kuiper belt, Oort cloud, and gamma rays?

27.   Compare the wavelength size of gamma rays, visible light, radio waves, and x-rays. Which is shortest and which is longest? Which has most energy and which has the least energy?

28.  What do we mean by the orbital energy of an orbiting object (such as a planet, moon, or satellite)?