## Descriptive Statistics For Data Within The Organization

There is often the requirement to evaluate descriptive statistics for data within the organization or for health care information. Every year the National Cancer Institute collects and publishes data based on patient demographics. Understanding differences between the groups based upon the collected data often informs health care professionals towards research, treatment options, or patient education.

Using the data on the “National Cancer Institute Data” Excel spreadsheet, calculate the descriptive statistics indicated below for each of the Race/Ethnicity groups. Refer to your textbook and the topic Resources, as needed, for assistance in with creating Excel formulas.

Provide the following descriptive statistics:

1. Measures of Central Tendency: Mean, Median, and Mode

2. Measures of Variation: Variance, Standard Deviation, and Range (a formula is not needed for Range).

3. Once the data is calculated, provide a 150-250 word analysis of the descriptive statistics on the spreadsheet. This should include differences and health outcomes between groups.

APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.

## MG629 Developing Leadership & Management Skills

Internal approval: Suzanne Doria, Sept 2022

1

The case study we shall be using is ‘Theranos Inc.’ a health diagnostic firm once valued at over \$9bn that proposed to revolutionize the healthcare system with its innovative blood testing system. See; https://watchdocumentaries.com/the-inventor-out-for-blood-in-silicon-valley/ for a documentary film on the rise and fall of the firm under the leadership of its CEO Elizabeth Holmes.

Your task is to analyse the leadership style of Elizabeth in relation to how well the firm performed under her reign as founder and CEO.

 Firm performance and measurement.

 Risks, legal and ethical issues.

This 2,500-word (+/-10%) report should have a front cover with a clear title, your student ID number and word count, an executive summary of no more than 250 words; a contents page; and a maximum of 4 pages of appendices are allowable. Note, the words used in these pages are not included in the word count. All words appearing in tables, charts and diagrams are also not included in the word count. There should be a minimum of 20 references from reputable sources and referenced using the Harvard system used to support your argument. The briefing document should be professionally formatted and presentable to a Director of a business.

Module code and title:

MG629 Developing Leadership & Management Skills

Assignment No. and type:

CW1: 2,500 Word report Evaluating Leadership in an Organisation.

Assessment weighting:

70%

Submission time and date:

4th November 2022 before 2 pm.

Target feedback time and date:

2

This assignment has been designed to provide you with an opportunity to demonstrate your achievement of the following module learning outcomes:

LO 1: Understand and critically evaluate contemporary theories and models of management and leadership.

LO 3: Analyse the significance and impact of leadership performance in relation to overall business performance.

Referencing and presentational requirements

Please reference your work using the Harvard style as defined in Cite Them Right Online (http://www.citethemrightonline.com).

 Pages should be numbered.

 All work to be submitted as Arial 11 font with line and a half spacing.

 All writing should be in the third person passive.

 Written work must be word-processed.

 The module title and code number must be clearly marked on the front cover.

 Work you submit for assessment must be properly referenced – a guide to the Harvard system of referencing can be found on the Bucks website at bucks.ac.uk/referencing.

 You may seek clarification from the module tutor at any time.

 There is no excuse for failing to submit your work in accordance with the guidance, work that does not meet the necessary standards in that respect will be marked accordingly.

 No collaboration is allowed.

Submission details

 You are required to submit your work electronically. Please use the relevant submission point in the Upload My Assignment area on LSST Connect before the time and date specified.

 Please ensure that your work has been saved in an appropriate file format. Turnitin will only accept the following file types: Microsoft Word, PDF. Your file must also contain at least 20 words of text, consist of fewer than 400 pages and be less than 40MB in size.

 You can submit your file as many times as you like before the submission date. If you do submit your file more than once, your earlier submission will be replaced by the most recent version.

Once you have submitted your file, you will receive a digital receipt as proof of submission, which will be sent to your LSST e-mail address. Please keep this receipt for future reference, along with the original electronic copy of the file.

3

When you submit an assignment, you are effectively making a declaration that it is your own work and that you have acknowledged the contribution of others and their ideas in its development (for example, by referencing them appropriately).

You are also expected to take responsibility for maintaining and managing confidentiality issues in your work. You should maintain and respect confidentiality in relation to the protection of personal, technical and/or commercial information of a sensitive nature in their assessed work, whatever the format.

Confidentiality issues will vary from subject to subject and you are encouraged to seek advice from your course team if you are unclear about requirements in your context. For further information and guidance, please see the University website: https://www.bucks.ac.uk/academic-confidentiality

4

0-34 (F) – Fail

Not successful

35-39 E – Marginal fail

Below required standard

40-49 (D) Pass

Satisfactory

50-59 (C) Pass Good

60-69 (B) Pass

Very Good

70-79 (A) Pass

Excellent

80-100 (A+) Pass

Outstanding

Criterion 1 Knowledge and understanding 25% (Key indicators for Knowledge and understanding) • Depth of knowledge and understanding • Engagement with subject-specific theories, paradigms, concepts, and principles • Background investigation, analysis, research, enquiry and/or study.

The work demonstrates a limited and/or substantially inaccurate or no understanding of key aspects of the subject, with few if any examples of coherent and detailed knowledge, which is unlikely to be at, or informed by, the forefront of defined aspects of the discipline e.g., recent research, latest techniques. The work does not: Show awareness of the subject matter of leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, nor any awareness of the case study and actors involved.

The work demonstrates insufficient understanding of key aspects of the subject, including some coherent and detailed knowledge, little of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of defined aspects of the discipline e.g., recent research, latest techniques. The work does not: Show enough understanding and awareness of the subject matter of leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, nor any awareness of the case study and actors involved.

The work demonstrates a basic yet systematic understanding of key aspects of the subject, including some coherent and detailed knowledge, at least some of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of defined aspects of the discipline e.g., recent research, latest techniques. The work: Shows enough understanding and awareness of the subject matter of leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, with some awareness of the case study and actors involved.

The work demonstrates a sound breadth and depth of systematic understanding of key aspects of the subject, including some coherent and detailed knowledge, some of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of defined aspects of the discipline e.g., recent research, latest techniques. The work: Shows good understanding and awareness of the subject matter of leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, and good awareness of the case study and actors involved.

The work demonstrates a sophisticated and critical systematic understanding of key aspects of the subject, including coherent and detailed knowledge, much of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of defined aspects of the discipline e.g., recent research, latest techniques. The work: Shows very good understanding and awareness of the subject matter of leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, and very good awareness of the case study and actors involved.

The work demonstrates a highly accomplished systematic understanding of key aspects of the subject beyond what has been taught, including coherent and detailed knowledge, most of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of defined aspects of the discipline e.g., recent research, latest techniques. The work: Shows excellent understanding and awareness of the subject matter of leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, and excellent awareness of the case study and actors involved.

The work demonstrates an exceptional systematic understanding of key aspects of the subject, including coherent and detailed knowledge well beyond what has been taught, all of which is at, or informed by, the forefront of defined aspects of the discipline e.g., recent research, latest techniques. The work: Shows exceptional understanding and awareness of the subject matter of leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, and outstanding awareness of the case study and actors involved.

Criterion 2 Analysis and criticality

The work demonstrates a limited or no ability to work independently and deploy relevant techniques of analysis and enquiry accurately;

The work demonstrates an insufficient ability to work independently, deploying accurately established techniques

The work demonstrates a sufficient ability to work independently, deploying accurately established techniques

The work demonstrates a sound ability to work independently, deploying accurately established techniques

The work demonstrates a sophisticated ability to work independently, deploying accurately established techniques

The work demonstrates a highly accomplished ability to work independently, deploying accurately established techniques

The work demonstrates a highly accomplished ability to work independently, deploying accurately established techniques

5

0-34 (F) – Fail

Not successful

35-39 E – Marginal fail

Below required standard

40-49 (D) Pass

Satisfactory

50-59 (C) Pass Good

60-69 (B) Pass

Very Good

70-79 (A) Pass

Excellent

80-100 (A+) Pass

Outstanding

25%

(Key indicators for analysis and criticality) • Logic and argument • Use and range of independently selected sources • Analysis and synthesis • Organisation and communication of ideas and evidence

The work shows insufficient knowledge of the subject areas; leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, with which to formulate a coherent and logical argument. The range, age and validity of secondary research sources & literature is inappropriate. Analysis of the case study and synthesis of relevant academic theory is absent. The communication and organisation of the work lacks flow and coherency.

of analysis and enquiry within the discipline; The work shows limited knowledge of the subject areas; leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, with which to formulate a coherent and logical argument. The range, age and validity of secondary research sources & literature is mostly inappropriate. Analysis of the case study and synthesis of relevant academic theory is absent. The communication and organisation of the work is weak and lacks flow and coherency.

of analysis and enquiry within the discipline; The work shows satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas; leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, with which to formulate a coherent and logical argument. The range, age and validity of secondary research sources & literature is satisfactory. Analysis of the case study and synthesis of relevant academic theory is satisfactory but lacks depth and breadth. The communication and organisation of the work is satisfactory and struggles for flow and coherency.

of analysis and enquiry within the discipline; The work shows good knowledge of the subject areas; leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, with which to formulate a coherent and logical argument. The range, age and validity of secondary research sources & literature is good. Analysis of the case study and synthesis of relevant academic theory is good. The communication and organisation of the work is good, with the flow and coherency of the argument clear to the reader.

of analysis and enquiry within the discipline. The work shows very good knowledge of the subject areas; leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, with which to formulate a coherent and logical argument. The range, age and validity of secondary research sources & literature is very good. The use of wider and less obvious sources enhances the work. Analysis of the case study and synthesis of relevant academic theory is very good, with excellent integration within the argument and evidence used. The communication and organisation of the work is very good, with the flow and coherency

of analysis and enquiry within the discipline; The work shows excellent knowledge of the subject areas; leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, with which to formulate a strong, coherent and logical argument. The range, age and validity of secondary research sources & literature is excellent. The use of wider and less obvious sources enhances the work and demonstrates originality in their thinking and work. Analysis of the case study and synthesis of relevant academic theory is excellent, with excellent integration within the argument and evidence used. The communication and organisation of the

of analysis and enquiry within the discipline; The work shows outstanding knowledge of the subject areas; leadership, management, firm performance, performance metrics, fiduciary duty, ethics, investor relations and stakeholder analysis, with which to formulate an exceptionally strong, coherent and logical argument. The range, age and validity of secondary research sources & literature is outstanding. The use of wider and less obvious sources enhances the work and demonstrates originality in their thinking and work. Analysis of the case study and synthesis of relevant academic theory is outstanding, with exceptional integration within the argument and evidence used.

6

0-34 (F) – Fail

Not successful

35-39 E – Marginal fail

Below required standard

40-49 (D) Pass

Satisfactory

50-59 (C) Pass Good

60-69 (B) Pass

Very Good

70-79 (A) Pass

Excellent

80-100 (A+) Pass

Outstanding

of the argument clear to the reader.

work is excellent, with the flow and coherency of the argument clear to the reader and presents original conceptual thinking.

The communication and organisation of the work is outstanding, with the flow and coherency of the argument clear to the reader and presents original conceptual thinking.

Criterion 3 Application and practice 25% (Key indicators for application and practice) • Development and/or application discipline- specific specialist skills • Accuracy, coordination, and proficiency in completion of practical tasks/processes

Work demonstrates a limited or no ability to select and apply appropriate, discipline- specific methods and techniques to develop and apply knowledge and understanding and to initiate, and in turn: The development and application of secondary research skills, analysis, evaluation and synthesis of data and information is not evident within the work. The ability to draw conclusions for the reader is clearly missing and/or inappropriate for the standard required as a manager. The ability to read and follow instructions is

Work demonstrates an insufficient ability to select and apply appropriate, disciplinespecific methods and techniques to develop and apply knowledge and understanding and to initiate, and in turn: The development and application of secondary research skills, analysis, evaluation and synthesis of data and information is weak within the work. The ability to draw conclusions for the reader is clearly missing and/or inappropriate for the standard required as a manager.

Work demonstrates a sufficient ability to select and apply appropriate, disciplinespecific methods and techniques to develop and apply knowledge and understanding and to initiate, and in turn: The development and application of secondary research skills, analysis, evaluation and synthesis of data and information is acceptable within the work. The ability to draw conclusions for the reader is evident but this is acceptable and mostly appropriate for the standard required as a manager.

Work demonstrates an ability to select and apply in a consistent and informed manner appropriate, disciplinespecific methods and techniques to develop and apply knowledge and understanding and to initiate, and in turn: The development and application of secondary research skills, analysis, evaluation and synthesis of data and information is good. The ability to draw conclusions for the reader is evident and what is presented is to a good standard and appropriate for the standard required as a manager.

Work demonstrates an ability to select and apply in a capable and effective manner appropriate, disciplinespecific methods and techniques to develop and apply knowledge and understanding and to initiate, and in turn: The development and application of secondary research skills, analysis, evaluation and synthesis of data and information is very good. The ability to draw conclusions for the reader is evident and what is presented is to a very good standard and appropriate for the standard required as a manager.

Work demonstrates an ability to select and apply in a highly accomplished manner appropriate, disciplinespecific methods and techniques to develop and apply knowledge and understanding and to initiate, and in turn: The development and application of secondary research skills, analysis, evaluation and synthesis of data and information is excellent. The ability to draw conclusions for the reader is evident and what is presented is to an excellent standard and appropriate for the standard required as a middle manager.

Work demonstrates an ability to select and apply in a highly accomplished and innovative manner appropriate, disciplinespecific methods and techniques to develop and apply knowledge and understanding and to initiate, and in turn: The development and application of secondary research skills, analysis, evaluation and synthesis of data and information is outstanding. The ability to draw conclusions for the reader is evident and what is presented is to an outstanding standard and appropriate for the

7

0-34 (F) – Fail

Not successful

35-39 E – Marginal fail

Below required standard

40-49 (D) Pass

Satisfactory

50-59 (C) Pass Good

60-69 (B) Pass

Very Good

70-79 (A) Pass

Excellent

80-100 (A+) Pass

Outstanding

clearly absent with no evidence of conceptual awareness of the wider business contexts involved that could be researched and/or integrated into the work. The work fails to address all the required elements set out in the briefing.

The ability to read and follow instructions is clearly absent with no evidence of conceptual awareness of the wider business contexts involved that could be researched and/or integrated into the work. The work fails to address all the required elements set out in the briefing.

The ability to read and follow instructions is acceptable with some evidence of conceptual awareness of the wider business contexts involved that could be researched and/or integrated into the work. The work mostly addresses the required elements set out in the briefing.

The ability to read and follow instructions is good with some evidence of conceptual awareness of the wider business contexts involved that could be researched and/or integrated into the work. The work meets all the required elements set out in the briefing.

The ability to read and follow instructions is very good with clear evidence of conceptual awareness of the wider business contexts involved that could be researched and/or integrated into the work. The work meets all the required elements set out in the briefing.

The ability to read and follow instructions is excellent with clear evidence of conceptual awareness of the wider business contexts involved that could be researched and/or integrated into the work. The work meets all the required elements set out in the briefing.

standard required as a senior manager. The ability to read and follow instructions is outstanding with clear evidence of conceptual awareness of the wider business contexts involved that could be researched and integrated into the work. The work meets all the required elements set out in the briefing.

Criterion 4 Transferable skills 15% (Key indicators for transferable skills) • Written, verbal and electronic communication • Numeracy and digital literacy • Personal motivation, organisation, and time- management

Work demonstrates limited or no ability to: -communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions accurately and reliably utilising relevant numeracy, digital literacy, oral and written communication skills in a manner fit for purpose. – an ability to manage their learning and work with minimal or no supervision. -use initiative to take responsibility for

Work demonstrates insufficient ability to: -communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions accurately and reliably utilising relevant numeracy, digital literacy, oral and written communication skills in a manner fit for purpose. -an ability to manage their learning and work with minimal or no supervision. -use initiative to take responsibility for

Work demonstrates a sufficient ability to: -communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions accurately and reliably utilising relevant numeracy, digital literacy, oral and written communication skills in a manner fit for purpose. -an ability to manage their learning and work with minimal or no supervision.

Work demonstrates a consistent and confident ability to: -communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions accurately and reliably utilising relevant numeracy, digital literacy, oral and written communication skills in a manner fit for purpose. -an ability to manage their learning and work with minimal or no supervision.

Work demonstrates a highly proficient ability to: -communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions accurately and reliably utilising relevant numeracy, digital literacy, oral and written communication skills in a manner fit for purpose. -an ability to manage their learning and work with minimal or no supervision.

Work demonstrates a highly accomplished ability to: -communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions accurately and reliably utilising relevant numeracy, digital literacy, oral and written communication skills in a manner fit for purpose. -an ability to manage their learning and work with minimal or no supervision.

Work demonstrates an exceptional ability to: -communicate information, ideas, problems and solutions accurately and reliably utilising relevant numeracy, digital literacy, oral and written communication skills in a manner fit for purpose. -an ability to manage their learning and work with minimal or no supervision. -use initiative to take responsibility for

8

0-34 (F) – Fail

Not successful

35-39 E – Marginal fail

Below required standard

40-49 (D) Pass

Satisfactory

50-59 (C) Pass Good

60-69 (B) Pass

Very Good

70-79 (A) Pass

Excellent

80-100 (A+) Pass

Outstanding

determining and achieving personal outcomes and/or outputs.

determining and achieving personal outcomes and/or outputs.

-use initiative to take responsibility for determining and achieving personal outcomes and/or outputs.

-use initiative to take responsibility for determining and achieving personal outcomes and/or outputs

-use initiative to take responsibility for determining and achieving personal outcomes and/or outputs.

-use initiative to take responsibility for determining and achieving personal outcomes and/or outputs.

determining and achieving personal outcomes and/or outputs. – consideration of sustainability (environmental, economic, and personal) and social and ethical matters in their work/solutions.

Assignment Parameters

10%

An unacceptable range of academic, professional and peer reviewed sources applied within the work. Incorrect Harvard referencing in text and in reference list pages. Major spelling, grammar or punctuation errors. Presentation of work is unacceptable and incapable of being presented to a board of directors. Work is outside of the +/-10% word count.

A below standard range of academic, professional and peer reviewed sources applied within the work. Incorrect Harvard referencing in text and in reference list pages. Major spelling, grammar or punctuation errors. Presentation of work is below the standard required and incapable of being presented to a board of directors. Work is outside of the +/-10% word count.

A satisfactory range of academic, professional and peer reviewed sources applied within the work. Harvard referencing in text and in reference list pages. Significant spelling, grammar or punctuation errors. Presentation of work is satisfactory but not suitable for being presented to a board of directors. Work is outside of the +/-10% word count.

Good range of academic, professional and peer reviewed sources applied within the work. Noticeable issues with the Harvard referencing in text and in reference list pages. Noticeable spelling, grammar or punctuation errors. Presentation of work is good and capable of being presented to a board of directors only with significant corrections and improvement. Work is only just outside the +/- 10% word count.

Very good range of academic, professional and peer reviewed sources applied within the work. Correct Harvard referencing in text and in reference list pages. Minor spelling, grammar or punctuation errors. Presentation of work is very good and capable of being presented to a board of directors with some corrections. Work is within +/-10% word count.

Excellent range of academic, professional and peer reviewed sources applied within the work. Correct Harvard referencing in text and in reference list pages. Very minor spelling, grammar or punctuation errors. Presentation of work is excellent and capable of being presented to a board of directors as is. Work is within +/-10% word count.

Outstanding range of academic, professional and peer reviewed sources applied within the work. Correct Harvard referencing in text and in reference list pages. No spelling, grammar or punctuation errors. Presentation of work is outstanding and capable of being presented to a board of directors as is. Work is within +/-10% word count.

## Activity 1 Bus Stat

Activity I – A manager claims that increases in advertising expenditure will surely raise the firm’s profits, citing his sense that people find the firm’s ads entertaining.

1. Sketch how you might refute this claim using:

a. A theoretical argument

b. Data

2. Why might the refutation using data be more convincing?

Activity II – A grocery store manager is interested in the data-generating process for her store’s weekly soda sales. She believes factors impacting these sales include price, product placement, and whether the week contains a holiday. Write out a formal representation of the data-generation process for weekly soda sales that incorporates these and additional factors.

Activity III – Access the dataset  Sales and Costs.xlsx (See the attached) and answer the following questions.

1. Calculate these descriptive statistics.

a. Mean of sales

b. Variance of materials costs

c. Covariance of labor costs and materials costs

d. Mean of labor costs

e. Total sales

2. Calculate at least two more descriptive statistics for this dataset.

Activity IV – Suppose you receive an e-mail from a stock broker who claims to be able to accurately predict whether any given stock will rise or fall in price during the subsequent month. To “prove” her claim, she makes a prediction about performance (higher price or lower price) for ten stocks over the next month. You are skeptical of the broker’s claim, and assume she simply guesses which stocks will improve or worsen in price over any given month. Put another way, you assume she has a 50% chance of being correct in her prediction for any given stock. Based on this assumption, you derive the following probabilities concerning her ten picks:

 Number of correct picks 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Probability 0.001 0.01 0.044 0.117 0.205 0.246 0.205 0.117 0.044 0.01 0.001

1. What is the empirically testable conclusion resulting from your deductive reasoning?

2. How could you test your empirically testable conclusion using a data sample?

3. Outline the inductive and deductive reasoning you could use to evaluate whether or not the broker is simply guessing in her stock picks.

## Sheet1

 Region Sales Labor Costs Materials Costs 1 \$2,070,279.00 \$59,313.00 \$25,489.00 2 \$2,253,758.00 \$84,294.00 \$24,159.00 3 \$1,158,833.00 \$61,570.00 \$27,903.00 4 \$1,916,107.00 \$75,704.00 \$26,936.00 5 \$2,209,766.00 \$73,411.00 \$20,282.00 6 \$1,344,758.00 \$58,071.00 \$27,327.00 7 \$1,525,285.00 \$63,391.00 \$20,948.00 8 \$2,101,502.00 \$71,228.00 \$22,553.00 9 \$2,343,835.00 \$63,438.00 \$26,483.00 10 \$1,965,095.00 \$61,898.00 \$18,493.00 11 \$1,426,194.00 \$85,093.00 \$28,694.00 12 \$2,029,357.00 \$59,075.00 \$27,439.00 13 \$986,042.00 \$78,975.00 \$26,713.00 14 \$1,901,358.00 \$86,003.00 \$25,048.00 15 \$1,465,856.00 \$86,628.00 \$27,959.00 16 \$1,339,142.00 \$66,014.00 \$20,393.00 17 \$1,200,863.00 \$57,088.00 \$20,524.00 18 \$1,295,627.00 \$68,377.00 \$26,861.00 19 \$892,951.00 \$63,295.00 \$23,854.00 20 \$1,781,455.00 \$68,708.00 \$17,651.00 21 \$2,004,767.00 \$72,406.00 \$24,306.00 22 \$1,806,366.00 \$66,453.00 \$25,955.00 23 \$1,589,468.00 \$73,428.00 \$25,793.00 24 \$1,417,498.00 \$80,573.00 \$27,410.00 25 \$1,007,695.00 \$71,824.00 \$27,023.00 26 \$2,047,287.00 \$58,911.00 \$19,564.00 27 \$633,691.00 \$70,385.00 \$18,798.00 28 \$1,498,891.00 \$78,440.00 \$27,471.00 29 \$845,502.00 \$56,672.00 \$28,614.00 30 \$1,326,477.00 \$85,644.00 \$22,815.00 31 \$2,269,852.00 \$80,518.00 \$21,864.00 32 \$2,355,777.00 \$64,302.00 \$17,614.00 33 \$537,921.00 \$67,073.00 \$18,759.00 34 \$1,795,804.00 \$87,295.00 \$22,673.00 35 \$1,135,573.00 \$70,522.00 \$24,010.00 36 \$1,089,914.00 \$73,215.00 \$22,557.00 37 \$2,011,619.00 \$78,151.00 \$28,035.00 38 \$2,281,482.00 \$85,753.00 \$23,273.00 39 \$921,194.00 \$76,725.00 \$20,106.00 40 \$1,691,862.00 \$67,237.00 \$29,091.00 41 \$1,268,440.00 \$73,632.00 \$28,556.00 42 \$1,569,321.00 \$80,347.00 \$20,155.00 43 \$823,068.00 \$80,167.00 \$19,767.00 44 \$1,524,685.00 \$75,288.00 \$26,404.00 45 \$1,908,126.00 \$63,282.00 \$25,759.00 46 \$1,566,024.00 \$69,968.00 \$22,545.00 47 \$1,619,888.00 \$83,180.00 \$28,056.00 48 \$808,591.00 \$68,919.00 \$23,179.00 49 \$1,040,239.00 \$67,078.00 \$19,997.00 50 \$997,462.00 \$75,289.00 \$29,025.00 51 \$801,630.00 \$68,497.00 \$18,740.00 52 \$1,886,438.00 \$67,231.00 \$27,850.00 53 \$864,289.00 \$83,353.00 \$21,987.00 54 \$544,624.00 \$81,315.00 \$27,823.00 55 \$1,287,403.00 \$87,633.00 \$22,756.00 56 \$890,054.00 \$56,083.00 \$20,547.00 57 \$2,239,090.00 \$86,178.00 \$27,994.00 58 \$2,262,311.00 \$57,910.00 \$24,894.00 59 \$1,080,190.00 \$87,059.00 \$24,367.00 60 \$2,147,915.00 \$80,572.00 \$25,795.00 61 \$2,396,990.00 \$80,957.00 \$19,901.00 62 \$1,417,255.00 \$58,839.00 \$27,052.00 63 \$1,157,278.00 \$69,583.00 \$28,822.00 64 \$1,134,178.00 \$80,016.00 \$29,467.00 65 \$2,345,258.00 \$73,865.00 \$19,903.00 66 \$1,672,436.00 \$81,601.00 \$26,807.00 67 \$2,345,143.00 \$63,813.00 \$18,103.00 68 \$2,261,119.00 \$76,714.00 \$26,727.00 69 \$1,866,284.00 \$81,186.00 \$25,151.00 70 \$1,580,449.00 \$73,410.00 \$25,915.00 71 \$646,655.00 \$75,838.00 \$26,430.00 72 \$1,056,578.00 \$74,259.00 \$28,569.00 73 \$1,732,073.00 \$70,017.00 \$22,004.00 74 \$2,101,072.00 \$87,546.00 \$17,993.00 75 \$718,115.00 \$57,482.00 \$22,655.00 76 \$1,976,968.00 \$77,448.00 \$24,843.00 77 \$2,021,155.00 \$81,244.00 \$24,262.00 78 \$920,032.00 \$68,843.00 \$28,814.00 79 \$1,176,260.00 \$83,347.00 \$19,435.00 80 \$1,795,298.00 \$84,689.00 \$21,987.00 81 \$1,238,913.00 \$76,721.00 \$22,590.00 82 \$1,193,492.00 \$73,115.00 \$28,932.00 83 \$1,917,295.00 \$84,008.00 \$21,393.00 84 \$1,917,107.00 \$63,529.00 \$22,760.00 85 \$1,111,683.00 \$75,823.00 \$20,284.00 86 \$2,358,103.00 \$62,489.00 \$24,670.00 87 \$1,512,228.00 \$78,675.00 \$22,574.00 88 \$2,365,887.00 \$77,698.00 \$22,541.00 89 \$1,220,109.00 \$69,343.00 \$18,787.00 90 \$1,582,269.00 \$87,323.00 \$20,135.00 91 \$1,694,185.00 \$59,479.00 \$23,110.00 92 \$1,172,850.00 \$56,737.00 \$21,527.00 93 \$719,072.00 \$88,180.00 \$21,478.00 94 \$761,940.00 \$70,907.00 \$29,386.00 95 \$654,623.00 \$65,953.00 \$19,344.00 96 \$1,754,492.00 \$63,005.00 \$19,231.00 97 \$2,100,389.00 \$73,282.00 \$20,066.00 98 \$2,112,363.00 \$72,606.00 \$24,597.00 99 \$1,900,468.00 \$76,151.00 \$23,548.00 100 \$927,771.00 \$85,190.00 \$26,457.00 101 \$1,335,138.00 \$64,275.00 \$24,610.00 102 \$1,021,173.00 \$77,647.00 \$19,816.00 103 \$1,146,799.00 \$73,662.00 \$24,943.00 104 \$2,066,518.00 \$57,254.00 \$17,847.00 105 \$1,932,132.00 \$75,716.00 \$23,913.00 106 \$919,282.00 \$82,506.00 \$29,471.00 107 \$2,141,066.00 \$75,596.00 \$27,372.00 108 \$599,061.00 \$62,359.00 \$24,159.00 109 \$1,411,500.00 \$61,139.00 \$26,711.00 110 \$2,389,813.00 \$72,706.00 \$18,468.00 111 \$2,377,562.00 \$78,447.00 \$27,798.00 112 \$535,614.00 \$76,687.00 \$21,539.00 113 \$2,147,780.00 \$58,931.00 \$29,267.00 114 \$2,137,903.00 \$57,422.00 \$28,743.00 115 \$1,230,437.00 \$73,808.00 \$29,166.00 116 \$995,140.00 \$62,161.00 \$17,868.00 117 \$1,387,932.00 \$69,869.00 \$26,738.00 118 \$550,332.00 \$86,126.00 \$22,865.00 119 \$653,114.00 \$74,309.00 \$26,982.00 120 \$1,610,589.00 \$85,271.00 \$26,716.00 121 \$1,459,722.00 \$69,595.00 \$22,494.00 122 \$1,051,652.00 \$87,409.00 \$26,092.00 123 \$941,630.00 \$68,080.00 \$27,530.00 124 \$1,254,743.00 \$59,737.00 \$18,836.00 125 \$1,218,564.00 \$64,344.00 \$20,925.00 126 \$1,203,395.00 \$59,236.00 \$25,071.00 127 \$550,153.00 \$56,128.00 \$23,266.00 128 \$586,207.00 \$72,952.00 \$23,341.00 129 \$2,128,845.00 \$72,209.00 \$28,773.00 130 \$2,193,410.00 \$84,652.00 \$20,450.00 131 \$533,211.00 \$65,444.00 \$20,040.00 132 \$1,499,001.00 \$85,194.00 \$23,602.00 133 \$1,232,044.00 \$59,434.00 \$19,998.00 134 \$1,173,982.00 \$83,325.00 \$21,826.00 135 \$1,735,144.00 \$80,895.00 \$22,102.00 136 \$1,824,943.00 \$60,482.00 \$20,154.00 137 \$1,943,972.00 \$75,832.00 \$26,613.00 138 \$1,783,202.00 \$70,814.00 \$28,130.00 139 \$615,007.00 \$72,724.00 \$28,755.00 140 \$1,073,409.00 \$73,356.00 \$24,640.00 141 \$1,324,584.00 \$56,036.00 \$28,007.00 142 \$1,572,545.00 \$59,405.00 \$27,291.00 143 \$2,142,207.00 \$83,025.00 \$27,538.00 144 \$1,322,803.00 \$82,618.00 \$28,963.00 145 \$955,162.00 \$69,877.00 \$20,216.00 146 \$1,204,299.00 \$69,888.00 \$23,943.00 147 \$1,247,238.00 \$83,553.00 \$22,312.00 148 \$668,568.00 \$71,330.00 \$19,654.00 149 \$901,037.00 \$68,961.00 \$25,080.00 150 \$1,470,753.00 \$60,016.00 \$22,154.00 151 \$2,241,978.00 \$76,705.00 \$17,901.00 152 \$999,515.00 \$59,058.00 \$20,996.00 153 \$2,281,842.00 \$75,257.00 \$23,574.00 154 \$1,633,531.00 \$77,013.00 \$23,619.00 155 \$1,193,062.00 \$69,213.00 \$25,855.00 156 \$2,191,119.00 \$81,676.00 \$23,635.00 157 \$1,030,840.00 \$70,962.00 \$19,786.00 158 \$1,135,681.00 \$80,343.00 \$23,138.00 159 \$2,300,149.00 \$88,624.00 \$22,954.00 160 \$996,367.00 \$59,992.00 \$18,193.00 161 \$1,950,032.00 \$72,645.00 \$22,088.00 162 \$1,902,193.00 \$70,097.00 \$18,435.00 163 \$1,943,646.00 \$60,325.00 \$27,499.00 164 \$656,331.00 \$73,410.00 \$24,471.00 165 \$1,407,348.00 \$78,931.00 \$22,677.00 166 \$2,145,281.00 \$88,810.00 \$19,953.00 167 \$1,771,726.00 \$59,593.00 \$25,434.00 168 \$2,249,655.00 \$69,797.00 \$28,933.00 169 \$1,133,698.00 \$70,742.00 \$18,208.00 170 \$1,373,116.00 \$76,342.00 \$24,072.00 171 \$1,606,126.00 \$68,633.00 \$22,686.00 172 \$687,442.00 \$70,880.00 \$23,726.00 173 \$2,207,122.00 \$85,731.00 \$22,326.00 174 \$2,111,579.00 \$64,977.00 \$22,572.00 175 \$1,596,675.00 \$85,872.00 \$21,387.00 176 \$2,123,277.00 \$58,092.00 \$23,115.00 177 \$2,389,076.00 \$80,723.00 \$27,666.00 178 \$1,870,329.00 \$59,693.00 \$25,212.00 179 \$1,154,544.00 \$66,204.00 \$21,491.00 180 \$1,143,138.00 \$74,878.00 \$22,836.00 181 \$1,294,604.00 \$88,236.00 \$26,604.00 182 \$1,966,778.00 \$70,841.00 \$24,158.00 183 \$515,820.00 \$87,052.00 \$28,152.00 184 \$2,223,939.00 \$76,689.00 \$23,061.00 185 \$1,956,787.00 \$57,714.00 \$19,884.00 186 \$1,188,708.00 \$64,546.00 \$24,425.00 187 \$1,597,823.00 \$81,454.00 \$27,510.00 188 \$1,360,436.00 \$81,669.00 \$21,335.00 189 \$519,655.00 \$74,236.00 \$17,838.00 190 \$651,626.00 \$57,153.00 \$18,357.00 191 \$1,063,954.00 \$75,651.00 \$18,936.00 192 \$1,423,040.00 \$84,311.00 \$26,813.00 193 \$645,388.00 \$81,524.00 \$24,561.00 194 \$1,283,879.00 \$85,012.00 \$27,877.00 195 \$2,049,640.00 \$72,002.00 \$21,578.00 196 \$2,412,435.00 \$78,743.00 \$21,039.00 197 \$887,789.00 \$56,150.00 \$18,591.00 198 \$2,290,641.00 \$63,763.00 \$20,787.00 199 \$1,590,895.00 \$84,386.00 \$22,510.00 200 \$2,361,150.00 \$68,802.00 \$19,429.00 201 \$2,142,241.00 \$64,416.00 \$24,386.00 202 \$2,018,946.00 \$72,226.00 \$21,395.00 203 \$1,426,128.00 \$56,606.00 \$23,506.00 204 \$2,307,175.00 \$69,290.00 \$23,132.00 205 \$2,359,559.00 \$56,410.00 \$28,282.00 206 \$821,665.00 \$74,653.00 \$17,632.00 207 \$1,866,668.00 \$59,957.00 \$26,226.00 208 \$604,250.00 \$76,469.00 \$28,895.00 209 \$1,969,455.00 \$62,555.00 \$25,287.00 210 \$2,284,304.00 \$58,962.00 \$18,274.00 211 \$851,326.00 \$78,286.00 \$22,293.00 212 \$804,827.00 \$78,756.00 \$21,863.00 213 \$703,472.00 \$71,453.00 \$28,461.00 214 \$732,869.00 \$60,495.00 \$25,047.00 215 \$1,532,699.00 \$69,098.00 \$20,994.00 216 \$1,001,095.00 \$81,025.00 \$25,177.00 217 \$2,017,591.00 \$83,820.00 \$23,090.00 218 \$1,395,371.00 \$83,098.00 \$26,715.00 219 \$880,326.00 \$68,715.00 \$18,865.00 220 \$1,525,176.00 \$78,973.00 \$26,175.00 221 \$1,428,854.00 \$83,654.00 \$22,420.00 222 \$1,319,132.00 \$56,985.00 \$25,476.00 223 \$515,776.00 \$79,818.00 \$23,892.00 224 \$2,123,854.00 \$63,507.00 \$23,303.00 225 \$2,010,794.00 \$78,581.00 \$20,786.00 226 \$990,785.00 \$63,971.00 \$17,590.00 227 \$603,132.00 \$87,000.00 \$25,750.00 228 \$1,550,614.00 \$87,257.00 \$17,557.00 229 \$1,360,328.00 \$60,054.00 \$28,009.00 230 \$2,406,056.00 \$85,079.00 \$27,580.00 231 \$1,375,610.00 \$82,593.00 \$24,851.00 232 \$1,819,798.00 \$73,386.00 \$27,438.00 233 \$1,150,208.00 \$62,494.00 \$20,810.00 234 \$1,052,096.00 \$64,618.00 \$21,318.00 235 \$689,215.00 \$84,406.00 \$22,988.00 236 \$628,382.00 \$77,514.00 \$22,015.00 237 \$1,319,461.00 \$61,778.00 \$17,641.00 238 \$2,172,774.00 \$66,558.00 \$19,540.00 239 \$1,531,918.00 \$82,419.00 \$29,276.00 240 \$1,993,862.00 \$58,677.00 \$28,344.00 241 \$958,446.00 \$56,712.00 \$28,564.00

## Ldg In Future, Cmplx, & Cnflct

1.3 Discussion. Leadership, Technology, Artificial Intelligence, and Decision-Making

Getting Started

In this course, we are going to flip the discussion forums. Instead of responding to a discussion question posed to you by the instructor, you will pose the discussion questions to your fellow students. In this way, you get to show your understanding of the concepts while also pushing the conversation forward by asking how we can use this knowledge in new ways. It may feel like a stretch, and if so, that is a good thing! You enrolled in this program (hopefully) to be stretched! As leaders, we cannot just be consumers of knowledge. We must also be able to take that knowledge, question it, determine how to apply it, and push for new answers to new questions.

Upon successful completion of this discussion, you will be able to:

· Formulate questions that promote critical thinking in others related to technology, artificial intelligence, and decision-making.

Background Information

One of the technologies that will continue to influence organizations in the future is artificial intelligence. As a leader, you need to learn when to look to artificial intelligence for help in decision making, and when you can make the decision better on your own. You need to wrestle with the ethical challenges of artificial intelligence. Think back to LDR-305, your Ethics and Decision-Making for Leaders course. Try to use the foundational ethical and decision-making tools you gained in that course as you assess how to make decisions regarding data, artificial intelligence, etc. in this course.

Instructions

1. Review the rubric to make sure you understand the criteria for earning your grade.

2. Review the information in the Getting Started and Background Information sections.

3. View the following (timing has been estimated):

a. Watch “How Will Artificial Intelligence Change Leadership?” (6 minutes)

c. Play the  Moral Machine (new tab)  game and review your results. (10 minutes)

d. Watch “The Importance of Ethical Decision Making in the Age of Technology.” (14 minutes)

e. Read  Artificial Intelligence and Leadership: A Few Questions (new tab) . (8 minutes)

f. Read  Artificial Intelligence and the Role of Leadership (new tab) . (12 minutes)

4. In your personal discussion thread, post one compelling question connected to one or more of the resources for your topic this week. Post this question by Day 4 of the workshop.

## RULES & REGULATIONS

 2020 15% Growth 2021 Sales 635.0 COGS 381.0 Gross margin 254.0 Other Exploit. Exp. 127.0 Amort. & Deprec. 50.8 EBIT 76.2 Interests 9.0 EBT 67.2 Taxes, 30% 20.2 Net Income 47.0 2020 2021 Cash + Near Cash Assets 19.5 Acc. Receivable 98.4 Inventories 133.2 CA 251.1 Fixed Assets 253.2 Acc. Depreciation -88.6 Total Assets 415.7 Acc. Payable 152.9 Short-Term Debt 16.0 Long-Term Debt 79.8 Current Profit 47.0 Retained Earnings 50.0 Capital 70.0 Total Liabilities 415.7 DFN Cash 1.2 4.6 Accounts Payable Near-cash assets 3.5 2.1 Other Accounts Payable Accounts Receivable 9.1 3.5 Taxes Due Inventories 3.8 3.1 Short-Term Debt Machinery 10.8 15.2 Long-Term Debt Facilities 6.2 4.7 Equity Accrued Deprec. -1.4 Total Net Assets 33.2 33.2 Total Liabilities WC = WC =

## Operation Thumbs Down

Case study

Operation Thumbs Down

The Californian city of Los Angeles has one of the most entrenched gang problems of any American metropolis. Hispanic and black gangs have long dominated the city, and the police department’s website admits that the county and city are the ‘gang capital’ of the country, with over 45,000 gang members and more than 450 active gangs. On average Los Angeles gangs commit over 5,000 verified gang crimes each year.

Most gangs have a propensity for community intimidation and violence, so disrupting or dismantling gangs is a challenge for law enforcement. Like many federal law enforcement agencies, the FBI can use a multitude of investigative techniques to identify and gather sufficient evidence to target and prosecute the leadership of a gang. For example, in return for ‘proffering’ information about more serious targets, a suspect under federal criminal investigation can reach a formal immunity or plea bargain agreement with federal prosecutors (McCaffrey and Oebker 2013).

A variety of techniques were deployed during Operation Thumbs Down, an extensive FBI-led operation that targeted the Rollin’ 30’s Harlem Crips, a set of the Crips who operated in the LAPD’s Southwest Division in South Central Los Angeles. The goal of the intervention was the arrest and prosecution of Rollin 30’s members, with the aim of violent and property crime reduction in the gang area. After an extensive intelligence-led investigation and surveillance operation, an initial gang ‘take-down’ resulted in 23 federal indictments, 16 federal arrests on the date of the takedown, 24 federal and 2 state warrants issued, 4 probation/parole searches executed, and 18 state arrests on the date of the take-down. In addition, several gang members were either arrested by both federal and local authorities or turned themselves into authorities after the take-down.

The investigating officers learned a great deal about what opportunities the gang exploited in the Rollin 30’s area. It was believed that the gang fed off a sense of community neglect and the belief among the community that the city didn’t care about their area or their problems. As a result of this insight, gang task force officers initiated a number of civic initiatives, centred on community outreach and neighbourhood beautification such as the clearing of streets and alleyways of debris and graffiti removal. Forty alleys were cleaned and trash was removed from the area by three graffiti removal crews, bulk trash removal, and weed removal teams. The task force also organised a community resource day, involving 40 organisations drawn from community and government groups, healthcare and behavioural health organisations.

The home turf of another gang nearby was used for comparison purposes so that an evaluation of the crime reduction effects could be examined (see Figure 1.1). The analysis compared crime changes in the Rollin 30’s turf with the territory of the similar gang that was not targeted. Operation Thumbs Down was successful in reducing violent crime. After the take-down, violent crime in the Rollin 30’s territory was reduced to approximately 4.2 per month, a violence reduction of 22 per cent. After one year, there had been about 50 fewer violent crimes than expected, in an area of less than two square miles. A 10 per cent reduction in property crime was also identified, and there was no evidence of any significant displacement of crime into the local (buffer zone) area.

Operation Thumbs Down demonstrated a number of key concepts relevant to intelligence-led policing. The FBI employed a command-driven process to identify a specific criminal group based on an objective assessment of the harm that they were causing the community, and they employed enforcement strategies targeted to prolific offenders; however, they also identified and attempted to ameliorate the opportunities that the gang was exploiting through strategic management that aimed to reduce the opportunities for crime and harm.

EXAM QUESTIONS:

The company Adidas has the following Financial Statements for a 3 year period.

Income Statement 2016 2017 2018 Revenues 18,48 21,22 21,92 Total Revenues 18,48 21,22 21,92 % Change YoY 9,3 % 14,8 % 3,3 % Cost of Goods Sold -9,38 -10,51 -10,55 Gross Profit 9,1 10,7 11,36 % Change YoY 11,4 % 17,6 % 6,2 % % Gross Margins 49,2 % 50,4 % 51,9 % Selling General & Admin Expenses -7,21 -8,6 -9,03 Provision for Bad Debts -0,04 R&D Expenses -0,15 Other Operating Expenses -0,25 0 0,07 Other Operating Expenses -7,61 -8,64 -8,96 Operating Income 1,49 2,07 2,41 % Change YoY 34,1 % 38,8 % 16,6 % % Operating Margins 8,1 % 9,7 % 11,0 % Interest Expense -0,07 -0,06 -0,04 Interest And Investment Income 0,02 0,03 Currency Exchange Gains (Loss) 0,01 0,02 Other Non Operating Income (Expenses) 0 -0,03 0,05 EBT Excl. Unusual Items 1,45 2,02 2,42 Impairment of Goodwill Gain (Loss) On Sale Of Investments -0,01 Gain (Loss) On Sale Of Assets 0,04 0 Asset Writedown -0,02 -0,04 Other Unusual Items 0,07 0 EBT Incl. Unusual Items 1,54 2,02 2,38 Income Tax Expense -0,45 -0,67 -0,67 Earnings From Continuing Operations 1,08 1,35 1,71 Earnings Of Discontinued Operations -0,06 -0,25 -0,01 Net Income 1,02 1,1 1,7

Balance Sheet 2016 2017 2018 Cash And Equivalents 1,51 1,6 2,63 Short Term Investments Trading Asset Securities 0,01 0,01 0,01 Total Cash And Short Term Investments 1,52 1,6 2,64 Accounts Receivable 2,2 2,32 2,43 Other Receivables 0,27 0,48 0,32 Notes Receivable 0,02 0,03 0,03

Total Receivables 2,49 2,82 2,78 Inventory 3,76 3,69 3,45 Prepaid Expenses 0,31 0,24 Other Current Assets 0,81 0,53 0,71 Total Current Assets 8,89 8,65 9,81 Gross Property Plant And Equipment 3,65 3,63 4,06 Accumulated Depreciation -1,73 -1,63 -1,82 Net Property Plant And Equipment 1,92 2 2,24 Long-term Investments 0,18 0,24 0,28 Goodwill 1,41 1,22 1,25 Other Intangibles 1,85 0,96 1,04 Loans Receivable Long-Term 0,03 0,12 0,12 Deferred Tax Assets Long-Term 0,73 0,63 0,65 Other Long-Term Assets 0,17 0,21 0,23 Total Assets 15,18 14,02 15,61 Accounts Payable 2,5 1,98 2,3 Accrued Expenses 2,24 1,69 1,69 Current Portion of Long-Term Debt 0,64 0,14 0,07 Current Portion of Capital Lease Obligations 0 0,01 Current Income Taxes Payable 0,4 0,42 0,27 Unearned Revenue Current 0,04 0 Other Current Liabilities 0,94 2,07 2,5 Total Current Liabilities 6,77 6,29 6,83 Long-Term Debt 0,98 0,98 1,61 Capital Leases 0 0 0,08 Unearned Revenue Non Current 0,04 Pension & Other Post Retirement Benefits 0,36 0,3 0,25 Deferred Tax Liability Non Current 0,39 0,19 0,24 Other Non Current Liabilities 0,19 0,24 0,24 Total Liabilities 8,72 8 9,25 Common Stock 0,2 0,2 0,2 Retained Earnings 5,52 5,86 6,05 Comprehensive Income and Other 0,75 -0,03 0,12 Total Common Equity 6,47 6,03 6,38 Minority Interest -0,02 -0,02 -0,01 Total Equity 6,46 6,02 6,36 Total Liabilities And Equity 15,18 14,02 15,61

Cash Flow Statement 2016 2017 2018 Net Income 1,02 1,1 1,7 Depreciation & Amortization 0,29 0,37 Amortization of Goodwill and Intangible Assets 0 0,49

Total Depreciation & Amortization 0,29 0,37 0,49 Amortization of Deferred Charges 0,07 0,06

(Gain) Loss From Sale Of Asset -0,02 0,02 0,01 (Gain) Loss on Sale of Investments Asset Writedown & Restructuring Costs 0,02 0,05 0 Net Cash From Discontinued Operations 0,04 0,01 -0,02 Other Operating Activities 0,09 0,32 -0,2 Change In Accounts Receivable -0,46 -0,48 -0,21 Change In Inventories -0,66 -0,22 0,18 Change In Accounts Payable 0,97 0,42 0,74 Cash from Operations 1,35 1,65 2,69 Cash from Investing -0,61 -0,68 -0,64 Cash from Financing -0,55 -0,77 -0,99

You are asked to analyse the company financial statements from different perspectives to assess how the company is positioned vs its main competitor. They provide you with some key indicators.

• 1- Analyse the profitability of the company. o To do that calculate:

§ The gross margin percentage (4 points) § The return on total assets (4 points) § The return on equity (4 points) § The return on sales (4 points)

o They provide you with some key indicators of the company main competitor. How is the Company Adidas compared to their main competitor in terms of profitability? (4 points)

§ Gross Profit margin=46.2%,44.6 and 43.8% § ROE= 30.1%, 34.4% and 17.4%.

• 2- Assess the liquidity and asset management of the company

o To do that calculate: § Working capital. (4 points) § The current ratio. (4 points) § The acid-test ratio. (4 points) § The average collection period. (4 points) § The average sale period. (4 points) § The operating cycle (4 points)

o Use the calculations above to asses how the company is positioned in terms of liquidity and asset management. They provide you with some key indicators of the company main competitor. How is the Company Adidas compared to their main competitor? (4 points)

§ Current ratio= 2.8, 2.93 and 2.51 § Average collection days= 37,37 and 36 § Average inventory days= 96,95 and 92

• 3- Assess the company solvency:

o In order to do that, calculate: § The debt-to-equity ratio. (4 points) § The times interest earned ratio (4 points) § The Debt to Assets ratio (4 points)

o They provide you with the key indicator below of the company main competitor. How is the Company Adidas position compared to it? (4 points)

§ Debt to Assets = 43%, 47% and 56%

• 4.-How is the company growing in sales during this three years?, show the % growth year over

year. The growth for the competition is 6%, compare the growth level. (4 points)

• 5- Summarize which are the strengths and weaknesses of Asics corporation vs its main competitor based on the analysis and comparison performed. Which recommendations would you give to the company management to improve its competitive position? Support your answer on your calculations. (12 points)

• 6.-Explain why a difference between Net income and operating Cash Flow is there, explain the reasons using the actual data of Company Adidas. (10 points)

• 7.- How much is the PE ratio of the company in the year 2018 considering that the share price is 192 ? The PE ratio of the competition is 38. What does that mean to you? (10 points)

## use of technology when teaching literacy, growing gaps in literacy skills, and differentiating instruction when working with literacy

Assignment 1

For this assignment, you will select a topic related to critical issues in literacy/reading in the elementary classroom. Some examples for issues in literacy include the use of technology when teaching literacy, growing gaps in literacy skills, and differentiating instruction when working with literacy. Read a minimum of five reference sources (two of which may be the course textbooks) on the selected topic and write a report following these instructions:

· Introduction

· Review, summary, and analysis (making connection with course content) of the articles’ content

· Conclusion

· List of cited references, following APA format (7th ed.).

Rubric

 Element Not Met Met Exceeded Understanding how to write an introduction (2 points) Introduction does not describe the purpose of the assignment. Introduction is not very clear when describing the purpose of the assignment. Introduction clearly describes the purpose of the assignment. Topic is related to critical issues in literacy/reading in the elementary classroom (3 points) Topic is not related to critical issues in literacy/reading in the elementary classroom. Topic is related to critical issues in literacy/reading in the elementary classroom and is well organized. Topic is related to critical issues in literacy/reading in the elementary classroom. Topic is well organized, demonstrates logical sequencing and structure. Understanding of the topic (3 points) The depth of understanding is underdeveloped by a lack of citations from resources. The depth of understanding was developed as demonstrated through the citation of a substantial number of resources available for the topic. The depth of understanding was exemplary as demonstrated through the exhaustive citation of resources available for the topic. Content/ Relevancy (3 points) Major sections of pertinent content have been omitted or greatly run-on. The topic is of little significance to the course. All major sections of the pertinent content are included. Sources are cited and significance to the course is evident. The appropriate content in consideration is covered in depth without being redundant. Sources are cited when specific statements are made. Significance to the course is unquestionable. Body of the Essay (summary, analysis) (4 points) The summary and analysis appears to have no direction, with subtopics appearing disjointed. The summary and analysis are included. Transitions tie sections together. The summary and analysis goes from general ideas to specific conclusions. Transitions tie sections together, as well as adjacent paragraphs. Conclusion (2 points) There is no indication the student tried to synthesize the information or make a conclusion based on the literature under review. The student was able to make conclusions based on the review. Conclusions are supported in the review. The student was able to make precise conclusions based on the review. Conclusions are strongly supported in the review. Citations/References: Proper APA format (3 points) Citation for the review did not follow APA format and was missing essential information. Citation for the review did follow APA format; however; a few (2) errors in essential information were evident. Citation for the review did follow APA format. Essential information was accurate and complete.

## Project charter based on the Case Study

Project Charter (Individual project)

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Overview

The purpose of this Indivdual assignment is to develop a project charter based on the Case Study. The charter is the initial document that ensures everyone has a common understanding of the project and authorizes the project to proceed. Details of the project will be developed later.

Details of the Project Charter assignment

Read “Mamma’s Bakery and Sandwich Shoppe Case Study” (Course Resources).

Determine the initial project management roles of each team member (assume a team size of 6-8) on the IT project team for planning, designing, and installing the IT system.

Some team roles might include:

• Project Manager

• Functional or technical managers, such as telecommunications, application software designer, database developer, Web page designer, etc.

• Budget/Finance

• Project Management Support such as procurement or human resources

Use the textbook and other academically credible sources, as a minimum, to define an IT System and then to determine the proposed scope for this project. For example, including a scheduling software package may be within the scope. Providing a learning application for new employees might be not be within the scope of this IT project.

Use the Case Study to be clear on the basic requirements for this project. What will the IT project team provide if the proposed plan is accepted? You may email the client/stakeholder (your instructor) to further define requirements, if you do not have enough information.

As in many real-world projects, the requirements are the weakest part of the project. The lack of detail is deliberate to encourage identify what might be missing and then work with the client/customer to fill in the blanks. Does it seem as though perhaps there is not enough information to complete the project and the charter? If so, please ask the customer (your instructor).

Now prepare a Project Charter for your project. This document becomes the basic agreement to describe the project with enough detail that the approximate scope and magnitude is clear and understandable by both the team and the client/customer or executive sponsor.

Project Charter Contents

Executive Summary Begin the document with an Executive Summary, which contains:

• A summary of the document’s purpose.

• A problem statement (need for the project).

• Project objectives and how they align with the business strategy.

• The project management approach.

• Technical solution (a high-level description of the IT system, which might include a graphic).

This is a Summary, so it should be a paragraph or two, not to exceed one page.

Project Scope The scope statement expands on the Executive Summary with a clear and concise statement of what the outcome of the project will be. Although it is the anticipated scope at this time, the intent is to set the project boundaries as you know them at this time. State (at a high level) what the project will deliver.

Project Charter (Individual project)

Project Charter Fall 2021 Page 2 of 4

You should be able to draw this from the Case Study. Do not over promise here. State what is in scope (to be delivered) as well as what is not in scope (not to be delivered).

Project Estimates At a high level, show the estimated project schedule. The easiest to understand is a list (perhaps in table format) of projected major milestones/deliverables for the project and their forecasted completion dates. This information is preliminary only, or a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM). Once the project has been approved to move forward, a comprehensive project plan will be developed

In addition, show the current estimated project costs, as a ROM. Identify the source of the needed funding, i.e., Software, Hardware, Networking, Internal Resources, Contractor Resources. Include a Total ROM Budget Estimate.

Primary Stakeholder(s) List the individual(s) who will use the final product, influence decisions about the project, and (most importantly) pay for the project.

Project Team Identify team roles and responsibilities on the project (you can use actual names based on who is in your group).

Project Constraints and Assumptions Constraints are any events or circumstances that may restrict or limit a project (and the team’s options). Examples of constraints are things such as due dates, fixed budget, skill levels, or resource availability.

Assumptions are the driving force that determines project success and they are typically outside the total control of the project team. Stakeholders must agree on these assumptions to produce a shared understanding of project success.

Preliminary Risk Statement List any risks that can be identified from, for example, the project constraints and assumptions. Included briefly stated (short sentence) risk mitigation strategies.

Preliminary Communication Plan Lay out the proposed methods of gathering and communicating project progress to the sponsor. This could include team standups, task progress updates, project status reports, project reviews, project post-mortem. Also identify the communication frequency, i.e., daily, weekly, at milestones, at end of project.

Change Threshold This identifies the magnitude of changes requested by the customer that would exceed the bounds of the original charter with relation to cost, resources or schedule. Once the threshold is met or exceeded, a new Project Charter would be required with signature from the customer.

Definition of Project Complete This is a high-level statement of the criteria that define when the project has been completed. This is date and funding agnostic. In other words, “End date reached” or “Funding is exhausted” do not define Project Complete. This statement should present the completed deliverables that evidence a completed project.

Signatures This includes signature blocks of the parties that are agreeing to the charter.

Project Charter (Individual project)

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Consider your audience – you are writing in the role of a project manager and your audience is Mamma Mia. Do not discuss Mamma’s Bakery as if the reader has no knowledge of the organization. Do not use the term “case study” – this is terminology used in a classroom and would not be in a business report. Use third person consistently throughout the report. In third person, the writer avoids the pronouns I, us, you, your, we, my, and ours. The third person is used to make the writing more objective by taking the individual, the “self,” out of the writing. This method is very helpful for effective business writing, a form in which facts, not opinion, drive the tone of the text. Writing in the third person allows the writer to come across as unbiased and thus more informed. The format could be modified to improve readability. You could use tables in certain spots, i.e., Project Estimates. Tables are single-spaced, so that would make the document neater looking.

• Create an APA format title page that includes: The title of report (Project Charter), your name, Course and Section number and date (use assignment due date); do not include graphics or themes.

• No running header required for this document.

• The body of the paper should be double spaced, and no longer than 7 pages.

• Tables should be single-spaced, and use no shading.

• Use 1″ margins on all sides.

• Font should be 11-point Calibri, 11-point Arial, 10-point Lucida Sans Unicode, 12-point Times New Roman, 11-point Georgia, or 10-point Computer Modern.

• Font should remain consistent throughout the paper, i.e., not changing from one font to another.

• Use at least one external reference and one from the course content (from the class reading content, not the assignment instructions or case study itself) with APA formatted citation and reference. For information on general APA format and specifics related to citing from the class content, refer to Content → Course Resources → Writing Resources. Resources must not use Wikipedia, general information sites, blogs, or discussion groups.

• The list of References must be its own page at the end of the document and it must be in APA format, i.e., double spaced, .5″ hanging indent. No more than 10% of the paper may be in the form of a direct citation from an external source. All in-text citations must appear in the References list and all entries in the References list must be used as in-text citations.

• Run Microsoft Word’s grammar/spell checker; there should be no errors in grammar, verb tenses, pronouns, spelling, punctuation, first person usage, or contractions.

• If headings are used, do not leave blank lines after the previous section, and do not use sub- headers.

• Submit your paper as a Word document, or a document that can be read in Word.

Submit this assignment in your Assignments folder.

IMPORTANT: The submission file should be named as “LastnameFirstname” ” Assignment Name”, such as – MylastnameMyfirstname Project Charter.docx

Project Charter (Individual project)

Project Charter Fall 2021 Page 4 of 4

Criteria 90-100%

Far Above Standards

80-89%

Above Standards

70-79%

Meets Standards

60-69%

Below Standards

< 60%

Well Below Standards

Criterion Score

Executive Summary Provides a brief overview of the Project Charter and is the first thing your reader will see.

14-15 Points Contains all five of the specified Executive Summary elements, accurately summarizes the Charter, and is no more than two paragraphs.

12-13 Points Contains four of the specified Executive Summary elements, somewhat summarizes the Charter, and is no more than two paragraphs.

10-11 Points Contains three or four of the specified Executive Summary elements, refers to the Charter, or is more than two paragraphs.

8-9 Points Contains one or two of the specified Executive Summary elements, wanders off topic, or exceeds the specified length.

0-7 Points No Executive Summary included, or does not include any specified elements.

15

Project Charter The basic agreement describing the project in enough detail that the approximate scope and magnitude is clear and understandable by both the team and the client/customer or executive sponsor.

41-45 Points Contains all ten of the specified Project Charter elements, clearly laying out the size and cost of the project, and is no more than seven pages.

36-40 Points Contains eight or nine of the specified Project Charter elements, giving an idea of the size and cost of the project, and is no more than seven pages.

32-35 Points Contains six or seven of the specified Project Charter elements, giving some idea of the magnitude of the project, and is no more than seven pages.

27-31 Points Contains up to five of the specified Project Charter elements, talks at a high level about the project, or exceeds the specified length.

0-26 Points Most of the specified Project Charter elements are missing, or do not follow the assignment guidelines, and/or exceeds the specified length.

45

Research Use at least 2 references from academically credible sources with APA formatted citation (in- text).

18-20 Points Required references are incorporated, used effectively, and cited using APA style. References used are relevant and timely and contribute strongly to the analysis.

16-17 Points Required references are relevant, and somewhat support the analysis. References are appropriately incorporated and cited using APA style.

14-15 Points Only one reference is used and properly incorporated, and/or reference(s) lack correct APA style.

12-13 Points A reference may be used, but is not properly incorporated or used, and/or is not effective or appropriate, and/or does not follow APA style for references and citations.

0-11 Points No course content or external research incorporated, or reference listed is not cited within the text.

20

Format Uses format provided. Includes Title Page and References Page.

18-20 Points Well organized and easy to read. Very few or no errors in sentence structure, grammar, or spelling; double- spaced, written in third person, and presented in a professional format.

16-17 Points Effective organization. Has few errors in sentence structure, grammar, and spelling; double-spaced, written in third person, and presented in a professional format.

14-15 Points Some organization. May have some errors in sentence structure, grammar, and spelling; double spaced and written in third person.

12-13 Points Not well organized, and/or contains several errors in grammar and/or spelling, and/or is not double-spaced and written in third person.

0-11 Points Not well organized, and/or contains several errors in grammar and/or spelling, and/or is not double-spaced and written in third person.

20

## Economic/managerial discourse

Scenario

At the end of 2014, a large university hospital in the Netherlands launched a procurement tender exercise for surgical suture material. The rationale for hospital management to initiate this procedure was cost-cutting and standardization. The award criteria were focussed on the most economically advantageous tender. There were different suppliers on the market that were able to produce and deliver high-quality surgical suture material for a lower price than was currently being paid. Consequently, the tender was awarded to a new supplier. The top managers and purchasing manager who initiated the tender trod carefully and implemented this relatively small-scale change initiative according to some basic change management principles (e.g.  Kotter, 2012): they built a guiding coalition that incorporated renowned medical specialists, they consulted department heads and they communicated the change to surgeons through different channels. Furthermore, it was recorded in the tender that the new supplier should provide value-adding services such as e-learning modules for surgeons, facilitate lengthy trial-use periods and offer workshops and support to the operating theatre. Hospital management conceived this first initiative as a test case for more extensive cost-cutting operations that were to follow. This project was supposed to be relatively easy, both in scale and in complexity. However, in the preparations ahead of the trial phase, a concern was raised by the cardiac surgeons to one part of the tender package involving sutures specifically used for cardiac surgery. Nevertheless, surgeons were forced to participate in testing the products supplied in the whole tender, including those products used in their specific specialities. Meanwhile, the initiators of the project felt that careful preparations of the testing phase had been made.

So, what went wrong? In mid-2015 – when this research project started – hospital management eventually met with fierce resistance from some of the hospital’s cardiothoracic surgeons. They adamantly refused to work with the new suture material. The resistance took the form of surgeons expressing anger at management, stockpiling their own supplies of surgical suture, refusing to operate, holding managers accountable for patient deaths that could arise from use of the new suture and threatening to go to the press if such a thing indeed were to happen. Hospital management had anticipated some resistance, but not of this intensity. The end result was that the contract was eventually cancelled for sutures specifically used in cardiac surgery.

Data collection

Data collection took place in a year starting from mid-2015. In total, 17 in-depth interviews were conducted that each lasted approximately 1 h. The respondents were targeted through maximum variation sampling until saturation was achieved and are listed in  Table I. Patients were excluded beforehand. The interviews were audio-recorded after verbal consent was given. All but one interviewee agreed to be audio-recorded. This interviewee was comfortable, though, with the interviewer (EG) taking notes. The interviews were transcribed and anonymized. Apart from formal interviewing, extensive informal conversations on the topic took place with surgeons from different medical specialities.

Field notes were made on the observations of a trial session and a workshop facilitated by the new supplier. These notes were divided into four categories: observational notes, theoretical notes, methodological notes and reflective notes (Baarda  et al., 2013).

Economic/managerial discourse

Transitioning to new surgical suture was often constructed by members of the hospital management as a test case for more extensive cost-cutting operations to follow:

We are confronted with an enormous challenge. We have to drastically cut costs. This was an important test case, because more and bigger cuts are pending. This appeared to us as an easy win. However, … [1]. (Head of operating theatres)

This construction is embedded in an economic discourse that provides a legitimate rationale for the change. A prerequisite for providing sustainable, high-quality health care is a financially healthy position. Some managers were genuinely astounded by how inefficient the current purchasing policies of the hospital were. Often managers posited the professional autonomy of medical surgeons as the main barrier to change. Other perceived barriers to change were constructed in ways that characterize particular professional roles. The purchasing manager, for example, typically suggested another barrier:

Not only with surgical suture, but in general medical specialists resist change. That is because these suppliers have a powerful and very effective sales force. It is what we call  vendor lock-in. (Purchasing manager)

As evident in the aforementioned quotation, depending on the formal positions participants took up in this change initiative, they came up with their own hypotheses of why they thought new surgical suture was resisted by medical professionals. In another instance, a proponent of the initiative to replace surgical suture suggested people were being overly emotional:

I get that those boys [cardiothoracic surgeons] … what they are doing is very precise and technical. And surgical suture and needles are of crucial importance. On the other hand, there are always these sentiments. I mean, there are many medical centres, also abroad, where cardiothoracic surgeons suture with XXX [brand name of new supplier] and it is not turned into a complicated affair. But you cannot take away these sentiments just like that. We took note of these feelings, and nudged our staff to give it [the new surgical suture] a try and comply as much as possible. But to be honest, according to me at cardiac surgery there is a lot of emotion involved surrounding suture, … and it is not working for me. (Department head, surgery)

However, some surgeons, especially cardiothoracic surgeons, presented other considerations as motivating their unwillingness to change, using arguments of quality of the new sutures:

The initiator – the manager that came up with the idea to supposedly cut costs – does not know that suture curls and curls more-or-less depending on the brand. He does not know whether needles are round or angular. And he doesn’t care. But for my work this is very relevant. It has nothing to do with professional autonomy. (Cardiothoracic surgeon)

One might argue with this cardiothoracic surgeon that this is exactly what the notion of professional autonomy refers to; in this case, the autonomy to decide for yourself, as a medical professional, which materials to work with. But that is not the point this cardiothoracic surgeon is making  per se. Apparently, in the daily jargon of healthcare managers, the notion of professional autonomy is employed as a stopgap explanation for resistance so often that this surgeon anticipated its negative connotation related to changing surgical suture and change more general. For him at least, the superimposition of professional autonomy as an explanation does not do justice to how he relates to the issue of changing surgical suture. For him it is not an abstract affair, but genuinely felt, both in a tactile and in an emotional sense. Also note that academic definitions of professional autonomy (conceptual) do not always correspond to how such notions are employed in daily usage (performative). The cardiothoracic surgeons spoken to frequently drew upon a competitive/professional discourse in relation to surgical suture, enriched with examples and in far less abstract manner than those that posited professional autonomy as the main cause of change resistance.

Competitive/professional discourse

In formal interviews and casual conversations with surgeons, the comparison with practicing sports – and the physicality that characterizes both practicing sports and conducting an operation – was frequently made. One cardiothoracic surgeon compared his surgical suture to the shoes of soccer player Zlatan Ibrahimović. Another surgeon name-dropped a famous tennis player in the following manner:

He [Roger Federer] goes down in the history books as the best professional tennis player ever. And that is because he has spent endless hours on the court practising and refining his skills. His tennis racket has become a natural extension of his arm. His tennis racket is his instrument. My instrument is my suture … suture and needles. (Cardiothoracic surgeon)

Whilst conversing with surgeons, it became evident that performing cardiothoracic surgery is perceived as practicing a top-level sport. It is both physically and mentally challenging, only the stakes involved are much higher. Surgical suture is embedded within an arrangement that specifically characterizes members of the cardiothoracic speciality. As such, attempting to change or replace this single tactile element feels like tearing down the entire arrangement. It might seem a bit far-fetched or exaggerated, but the emotions and feelings that were triggered by pushing forward with this initiative were real and so were the consequences of attempting to bypass these emotions and feelings. One cardiothoracic surgeon detailed his professional involvement in the following manner:

I didn’t just go to medical school. After that I have done my residency, with a Ph.D.,  et cetera. All in all an extra 10 years. Everything that you are supposed to do, I did that, to become the best possible professional and to be able to deliver the best possible care for the patient. This is not some quick course. This is really … six years of medical school and then postgraduate for another six years. That isn’t nothing. You have to be motivated, driven and persistent. And you hope to end up working for an institution that enables you to profess your passion. (Cardiothoracic surgeon)

It is important to note that the cardiothoracic surgeons quoted here did not exclusively drew upon this competitive/professional discourse that implies sacrifice, persistence and drive. But when they did, they challenged the economic/managerial discourse without actually talking about finances. In a way, to put it bluntly, money from this perspective should not be an object, or, at least, it should never be a priority.

Discourse on patient care

It would be too one-sided to emphasize the aforementioned competitive/professional discourse that the surgeons frequently drew upon without pointing out another manner in which surgical suture was spoken about. During the interviews and casual conversations with surgeons, it became evident that the well-being of their patients was a primary concern. One cardiothoracic surgeon positioned himself as the patient’s main advocate – as opposed to hospital managers, who only maintain quality in a more general, abstract manner – by asking the following rhetorical question:

Let’s say … I am going to operate your father with XXX [brand name of new supplier], but I am not used to working with that suture. It curls more and the needles go blunt quicker and the needles are square and therefore more difficult to position in the needle holder. So I need to focus more and I need to stress … I need to work [with the utmost precision]. Well, I am curious whether that manager would let me operate on his father. (Cardiothoracic surgeon)

Surgical suture was constructed as a lifeline on which the cardiothoracic surgeon relies on behalf of the patient. Replacing surgical suture is perceived as an unacceptable potential cause of failure. So whereas the competitive/professional discourse places the concerns and aspirations of the medical professional front and centre, this discourse on patient care places the concerns of the patient front and centre by means of the medical professional as his advocate. Implicit in both discourses, though, is that money should not be an object. As such, these discourses are counter-discourses to the economic/managerial discourse that legitimizes replacing surgical suture by that of a cheaper brand.

Discourse on safety and quality

Related to the aforementioned construction of surgical suture as a lifeline located within a particular discourse on patient care is the construction of surgical suture as a risk factor. This construction is located within a slightly different discourse on safety and quality, because it relates to health authorities, medical trials, accountability, transparency, statistics, performance measures, institutional reputation, safety and quality management rather than to direct and personal involvement with the patient. The direct relationship between the surgeons’ handicraft and the possibly life-threatening consequences inherent in cardiac surgery amplifies the sensitivity of the subject.

So many things can go wrong. So changing surgical suture presents an additional risk. We prefer to operate a patient’s heart only once and then never again. (Cardiothoracic surgeon)

When a medical professional draws upon this discourse, it provides a strong counter-discourse to the economic argument that is more frequently used by those working in hospital management. The Chairman of the Board, even though he formally has the power to push forward, by now has realized he had reached the limits of changeability:

If medical specialists use the argument of safety, patient safety, then you are finished. As an executive it is over. You start thinking, what if he is right; and I force him to work with this suture and something goes horribly wrong. He only has to say: “I told you it wasn’t safe!” And then you, as an executive, are gone. Of course, you have to challenge and not be naive, but ultimately it is a show stopper … that safety argument. Another factor was, that my colleague in the Executive Board and I are not [cardiothoracic] surgeons. So we could not weigh in from our own experience. (Chairman of the Board)

The best of the best: being part of an elite professional group

Among the surgeons of different specialities, the cardiothoracic surgeons stood out amongst those interviewed in this case study. A theatre nurse prided herself on being a member of this elite group in the following manner:

Those boys [cardiothoracic surgeons] – or men I should say – are so bloody good in what they do. And you [as a nurse operating theatre] also want to be part of that, to pass  cum laude. They stand for their profession, each time they give it a hundred and ten percent. And they perform procedures that no one else dares to perform. For us it is a joy to assist them. You share in the pride and get into that special workflow. (Nurse, operating theatre)

The Chairman of the Board had learned that in dealing with different professional groups, especially when they are tightly-knit and its members have unique histories, training, skills and responsibilities, one does better to adopt a contextualized approach to change:

Well, our group of cardiac surgeons consists of individuals with a unique history at this hospital. They are not known to be particularly dynamic or flexible. Let’s keep it at that. So, to get them on board with our plans requires some extra effort on our part. (Chairman of the Board)

The following account of a cardiothoracic surgeon exemplifies just how difficult it is to understand the actual practice of operating on someone’s heart.

I have studied and practiced endlessly. And we [other cardiothoracic specialists] frequently consult one another. But sometimes when I have to decide fast, during a very complex operation, medicine is almost more like an art-form. I feel when something might go wrong and I anticipate what to do. And when someone later asks me: “Why did you do this or that?”, of course I will formulate an answer, but in reality I acted upon the experience I have and on what I have learned from my mentors. In these moments everyone in my team knows what to do. I do not even have to tell them. However, I cannot accept that someone who has no idea what we are doing, decides that I have to work with that suture. (Cardiothoracic surgeon)

The prediction that deeply embodied practices that are learned over time through mentorship, explicit instruction and implicit attunement of the senses are not to be changed by outsiders in a pick-and-choose manner is confirmed by this surgeon.

Instructions for scenario:

Develop a change management strategy, considering the scenario stakeholders that incorporates the following sections:

1. Conduct a stakeholder analysis for case and summarize the results in a stakeholder map highlighting interest, engagement, and influence groupings.

2. Use the results of the stakeholder analysis to identify and evaluate resistance to the change process.

3. Use the Kotter´s change management model to apply in the case.

4. Critically discuss the involvement of the functional areas in developing a change plan

5. Draft a strategic change plan for your case by applying the selected change management model with timelines and SMART progression metrics.

Formalities:

· Wordcount: 1500 words.